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There have been 195 items by habigman (Search limited from 21-April 17)
J. Pul Jr. Muntplein 5 Amsterdam probably 1920s - 1930s.
Carl Jacob, Halle a / S., Kleinschmieden 7
Owner of the royal Prussian state medal in silver for commercial services
Warehouse finished. Furs of own factory
Carl Jacob, Halle a / S., Kleinschmieden 7
Owner of the royal Prussian state medal in silver for commercial services
Warehouse finished. Furs of own factory
At the birth of the company were mostly natives of Valasske Mezirici and the surrounding area, the main representative was Ludwig Janyška originally authorized signatory of the company Schlessinger Valasske Mezirici. The company immediately after its foundation quickly developed a promising and already in the 20s of the 20th century has become a strong competitor for companies that in millinery act much longer. Even because the company wanted to continue to develop, in 1928 the company was commissioned to "Janyška a spol., A joint-stock company for production of hats in Valašské Meziříčí".
The period of the joint stock company was the period of the greatest development of the company. Factory managed to export to almost all world markets, not only to America , but also to Asia and Indonesia . Export was the main item for the company and by the mid-1930s the company exported around 85% of the produced goods.
Like the rest of the industry, the factory was hit by the global economic crisis , but due to good leadership, it did not sign up more than the move to lay off several employees and reduce production. Fortunately, the factory stayed in order to grow even further from 1934 . Production and export have been rising rapidly, new and additional workers have been recruited and employees have been able to raise wages. The factory has participated in several world exhibitions and has almost always brought some price. At the end of 1938 , a major reconstruction of the factory was also carried out, when new dining rooms were set up for staff, new showers, dressing rooms and toilets were built.
In 1939 came the German occupation of Czechoslovakia . Although Janska managed to maintain the existence of the company, though at the price of small concessions. The factory was not only producing hats and caps, but also arms production and state orders for the production of military socks. By the end of the war , this production had prevailed.
After World War II, the company worked for a while, but after nationalizing in 1945 , it was then transferred to Tonak together with other Novojičín factories in December 1946 . In 1961 , the race was canceled.
Update 03/14/2018: I made some changes based on feedback from member and friend ErWeSa (Wolfgang). The major change is in bold.
"Smooth hats have a long tradition. They are mainly produced from tame or wild rabbit or from mixtures of both types of hair. Hats made of pure beaver hair are rarely found, and a percentage of beaver hair is added to high-quality felts. Originally, the molded and dry hat was smoothed by hand with the pumice stone, later with sandpaper. Then, by passing over with a piece of fish skin, fine, short hair was brought out to improve gloss and feel. In industrial production, the pre-dressed hats are dressed on automatic head and edge grinding machines by rubbing and greasing. The American trimming additionally uses color powder to improve the hand and look. The powder conceals small defects and gives the hat surface a closed appearance and a pleasant hand. The pigment mixture, which is adapted to the color of the hat, is applied at the end of the friction work and fixed to the surface by gentle greasing and dry-leveled."
"Glatte Hüte haben eine lange Tradition. Sie werden vorwiegend aus Zahm- oder Wildkanin bzw. aus Mischungen beider Haarsorten erzeugt. Hüte aus reinem Biberhaar findet man selten, Anteile von Biberhaar werden hochwertigen Filzen beigemischt. Ursprünglich wurde der angeformte und trockene Hut mit dem Bimsstein, später mit einem Reibpapier von Hand glatt geschliffen. Anschließend wurde durch Überfahren mit einem Stück Fischhaut feines, kurzes Haar hervorgeholt, damit Glanz und Griff verbessert. In der industriellen Fertigung werden die vorgeriebenen Hüte auf automatischen Kopf- und Randreibemaschinen durch Reiben und Fetten zugerichtet. Die amerikanische Zurichte verwendet zusätzlich Farbpuder um Griff und Optik zu verbessern. Der Puder verdeckt kleine Fehler und verleiht der Hutoberfläche ein geschlossenes Aussehen und einen angenehmen Griff. Die auf die Hutfarbe abgestimmte Pigmentmischung wird am Ende der Reibarbeit aufgetragen, durch leichtes Fetten an der Oberfläche fixiert und trocken egalisiert. "
"Greasing or Lubricate
Pouncing / rubbing negatively affects the color look of the hats, they become dull and lustreless. Greasing binds the friction dust remaining in the felt and levels / smooths the surface. The color gets luminosity and a rich look. With light colors, the grease can be dispensed with, sometimes this is even advantageous. For dark colors or blacks, greasing is indispensable. Suitable fatliquors are a number of natural and synthetic oils. Poplar oil and the thick Green Laurel oil that was banned in many countries because of possible allergic skin reactions were widespread. Both oils are dilutable by adding trichlorethylene or Vaseline oil. Rapeseed oil, spindle oils, Vaseline and specially prepared products such as Lorbol** are currently used.
In order to put grease on the hat you first put it on a luring pad (the Schmierballen, if this is the correct translation for a piece of textile that is either folded or filled with e.g. cotton wool in order to get a tight piece of material), which is then heated by holding it close to a hot plate to melt the grease/lubricating agent. Then the hat is brushed with this pad with the nap. After that the hat is wiped again with a piece of soft cloth (the "Brenntuch") that has been warmed on a hot plate (presumably to get rid of any superfluous grease)."
**I searched "Lorbol" but came up empty.
"Fetten oder Schmieren
Reiben beeinflußt die Farboptik der Hüte negativ, sie werden matt und stumpf. Durch das Fetten wird der im Filz verbliebene Reibstaub gebunden und die Oberfläche egalisiert. Die Farbe bekommt Leuchtkraft und ein sattes Aussehen. Bei hellen Farben kann auf das Fetten verzichtet werden, manchmal ist das sogar von Vorteil. Bei dunklen Farben oder Schwarz ist ein Fetten unerläßlich. Als Fettungsmittel kommen eine Reihe natürlicher und synthetischer Öle in Frage. Weit verbreitet war Pappelöl und das dickflüssige grüne Lorbeeröl, das in vielen Ländern wegen möglicher allergischer Hautreaktionen verboten wurde. Beide Öle sind durch Zusatz von Trichloräthylen oder Vaselineöl verdünnbar. Gegenwärtig werden vor allem Rapsöl, Spindelöle, Vaseline und speziell zubereitete Produkte, wie Lorbol, verwendet. Zum Fetten des Hutes streicht man etwas Fettungsmittel auf den Schmierballen, hält diesen an eine heiße Platte, bis er sich etwas erwärmt und das Fett verteilt hat. Nun wird der gesamte Hut nach dem Strich bearbeitet und mit dem Brenntuch, einem auf einer Platte erwärmten weichen Lappen, ausgewischt. "
The above cm size tag and main paper stamp fragment are similar to the this hat.
I have few other hats with the same main paper stamp but no company mark. As I mentioned I believe these hats were made by one of the large scale German Hat Companies that were located in Eastern Germany that produced both Wool and Fur Felt hats but didn't survive WWII.
From the above article:
"The company was founded in 1811 as a cloth factory but converted in 1883 on hat factory. The company manufactures hoods and hats in wool, hair and velour for men and women. In the modern factory rooms equipped with all the latest innovations, it is possible to produce up to 1,200 pairs of stumps per day which are further processed in a branch plant also located in Luckenwalde. In the field of export, the company has been active in the early days."
The factory building was designed by the famous architect Erich von Mendelsohn.
Some of the factory still stands today and is a protected monument. The following photos were taken during a recent renovation project (now completed).
Old and New Hat.
The famous sculptor Schadow and the minister von Schuckmann were both diligent visitors to a Berlin reading club. The former used to go home early, but the minister was usually the last one in the company and was always picked up in his carriage. One evening the minister was again the last, and indeed the very last one. He found only a single hat in the dressing room. His hat was old and very used, but a brand new hat laid in front of him. If he did not want to go home bare headed, the minister had no choice but to put on his new hat. So he drove home in the stormy rain that had been going on for an hour. Early the next morning the minister was still lying in bed, the bell of his hotel was drawn, a servant brought the old hat of the minister and reported a recommendation by Mr. Schadow, asking for his hat, which His Excellency took yesterday from the Monday meeting. The following Monday, the minister received the following information from the old Schadow:
"I just bought a new hat last Monday. When I wanted to return home in the evening, it was raining heavily, and since I did not want to spoil my new hat, I took yours and thought: Your Excellency would drive mine home safely. "
(Anecdotes - Bibl. Vienna 1876, 2nd volume)
From the book (some day I will post and translate the entire book).
DER HUT -UND SEINE GESCHICHTE Eine kulturgeschichtliche Monographie, von Dr. O. Timidior Mit 85 Abbildungen Zeichnungen von Karl Heidrich (1914)
THE HAT AND ITS HISTORY A Cultural-Historical Monograph by Dr. Ing. O. Timidior With 85 illustrations Drawings by Karl Heidrich (1914)
(Click on Photos to Expand)
Animal Hair of the Hat Industry, Herbert Rosenthal
Saxon University of Applied Sciences Textile Industry, Chemnitz
Charges approved by the Technical University of Munich in order to obtain the dignity of DOCTOR OF TECHNICAL SCIENCES (Doctor of Agriculture) treatise.
Presented by Agronomist Herbert Rosenthal born in Luckenwald, Germany.
1. Reviewer: Professor Dr. Philosophy Heinz Henseler.
2. Reviewer: Professor Councillor Dr. Philosophy Theodor Henkel.
Date of filing of work 11th, February 1929
Date of acceptance of work 27th, February 1929
Animal Hair of the Hat Industry, Herbert Rosenthal, pages 117 - 119
§5 Experience with (Fur) Hair Quality
Before I get to a compilation of the hair qualities, I have to specify some experiences, which have been communicated to me by experts of the hat industry. Because it is of particular importance to take such practical data into account in the attempt to standardize.
The first distinguishing feature is the ability to feather the qualities hair. By this is meant the production of fine down-like hair on the surface after a good fulling. The whole hat gets a shiny, fine, soft texture and is very popular as a velour. Especially suitable for this are Hare backs, White Hare sides, Muskrat bellies, Beaver, also Nutria bellies.
The latter Fur hair qualities, however, are so rare that we can disregard them.
For the production of smooth and matt finish hats one uses especially the non-resilient Rabbit hair.
In general, the experts said that the best quality should always be the Hare back of mature skins. It is used, as already mentioned, for velour and long-haired finish hats. Above all, the great felt energy is praised for this quality. Furthermore, the toughness, strength and the fine noble gloss are known here. As far as the color is concerned, there are usually no particular differences in terms of this quality. Almost the same characteristics are shown on the white side of Hare skins, which fell in winter and originate from adult animals. Only these hairs are a little less glamorous. Back and white side of non-mature winter skins have a little lower gloss and not the toughness of the aforementioned qualities. They give a pretty good structure. Long coarse hairs should be more abundant here. Now follow backs and sides of the autumn skins. They do not give a bad structure. But their brilliance is significantly lower. Blue side of Hare skins show little shine. Their texture is almost spongy. Blue sides of non-mature winter skins are very little different. Back and sides of the summer skins behave again far less favorable. Belly skins of mature winter hares give a pretty good, firm structure. The same characteristics also approximately show the belly hair of immature winter and autumn Hares. Only here the long course hairs are found more abundant.
Wild Rabbit back has great and enduring feltability. Toughness should be almost as big as a mature Hare's back. Wild Rabbit side is not much worse. Only does not show the same tenacity. Wild Rabbit belly should behave in the processing often better than some Hare belly. Low energy shows the Garenne (area of pasture set aside for rabbits usually surrounded by stone walls) back.
The Hare belly should be almost the same as the back hair of the Tame Rabbit. Quality ash color often equals the Wild Rabbit in terms of workability. Very little should the structure of hutch grey differ. In contrast, black shows less robust structure. Very good felting ability can be found again at hutch Rabbit. The worst it is given home White Rabbit. The Colorful Rabbit behaves better.
Then the following qualities are distinguished mostly in the industry:
I. Hare backs, winter, mature
2. White sides, Hare, winters mature
3. Blue sides, Hare, winter, mature
4. Hare stomach, winter, mature
5. Back and sides, winter Hare not mature
6. Blue sides, winter Hare not mature
7. Hare belly, winter Hare not mature
8. Hare back and sides, autumn
9. Hare belly, autumn
10. Hare back and sides, summer
11. Hare belly, summer
12. Wild Rabbit back
13. Wild Rabbit sides
14. Wild Rabbit belly
15. Garenne back
16. Tame Rabbit belly
17. Hutch Rabbit gray back
18. Ash Color back
19. Hutch Rabbit back
20. Black Rabbit back
21. Multi Color back
22. Hutch white Rabbit back
These are the most common qualities. I was able to share some experiences. Some can be seen in the book by C. Bortfeld, a specialist in this field. The industry itself has difficulty obtaining such communications. Because most manufacturers want to keep their experience for themselves and evaluate themselves. Finally, I would like to characterize the breeding goal, which suggests the manufacturer. He prefers firm, elastic and dense skins with fine and tough hair. Suppleness, which increases with the hardness of the weather, is desired. Furthermore, precious luster, which depends on weather and age, is very popular. Especially bright colors are preferred. The moisture content may not exceed 2 percent if purchased.
(Click on Photo to Expand)
This print arrived a while ago but I just got around to getting it scanned because it's too big (12 X 8 inches) for my home scanner. August Hückel was one of the original owners of J. Hückel ´s Söhne Neutitschein, Austria (after WWI Nový Jičín, Czechoslovakia). He had this house (building) built in Vienna in 1881.
Translation of the above article.
"The Goods and Residential House
of Mr. August Hückel
Corner of Heinrichsgasse, Concordiaplatz and Salzgries in Vienna.
By the architects' Claus and Gross
in clubs with the k. k. Senior engineer August Hückel
(For this purpose telephone number 63-66)
By the demolition of the former so-called salt-grief barracks. Building plots were created in Vienna, which are particularly suitable for the installation of residential and Waarenhäusern due to their location in a distinct business district.
Mr. August Hückel, manufacturer in Neutitschein, acquired the corner seat to the west of this newly created group against the Heinrichsgasse and the Concordiaplatz, which, incidentally, was so unfavorably parceled out that it had been unusually difficult to devalue a reasonably good I'lan for to create this construction site.
The client initiated a competition among some architects. The fact that all the plans had to show chic, irregular rooms as a result of the parcel figure was self-evident. We undertook primarily to redesign the parcelling, which considerably improved the basic form and created a more dignified, better situation with regard to the Concordiaplatz. This idea was submitted to the municipal council of the city of Vienna and finally found its approval after many efforts. The applause of the builder, however, she had won in the "mass. that it was mainly due to these circumstances that our plan was recognized as the best among the competitors, and that the construction was transferred to us.
The house, whose purpose is that of a residential and at the same time warehouses, contains a basement, ground floor, Untertheilung and four floors. The basement, the ground floor, the Untertheilung and the first floor are for business purposes, the three upper floors are used as living quarters. The business and warehouse rooms are interconnected by stairs and elevators, and are accessed both directly from the street through the sales vaults and from the two main entrances in the house.
On the ground floor is also the caretaker's apartment. From the two main entrances, one of which is accessible from the entrance to Heinrichsgasse and the other from the entrance to the salt marshes, one enters the apartments and, as has already been mentioned, also the business premises.
A part of the large court, which is delimited by iron-bound wooden walls and covered with a glass roof, serves as a commodity magazine.
A special value was on the way through. solid construction laid. For example, the basement, the parterre, the sub-division and the first floor are vaulted on traverses; the remaining ceiling constructions are made of wood.
All walls were covered with a layer of asphalt under the basement, and the outer walls of the lanes were covered with asphalt from the Isolirschichte to below the pavement.
The basement rooms were given a 6-inch concrete underlay and an asphalt pavement connected to the Isolirschichte.
The execution of the masonry took over Mr. Baumeister Alois Schumacher, who had to overcome very difficult foundations. In fact, groundwater had been found during the excavation of the foundation, which could only be pumped out with the help of locomotives in the longer term. It then had to be buried under all the foundation walls at a height of three feet, before it was possible to proceed with complete certainty to the construction of the masonry.
Despite this unwelcome delay, the construction, which began in April 1881, was passed on to its purpose in May 1882.
Among the executing forces are particularly to call: the companies A. Wasserburger, k. k. Hof-Steinmetz-master, and the First Austrian Door, Window and Floor Factory Company.
In addition to carpentry work, the latter also provided all the foot and parquet floors. The locksmith work, as well as the iron trusses was supplied by master locksmith Ludwig WiIheIm. The sculptural work was done by Mr. Johann Hutterer.
The paintings, especially of the vestibule, are very tastefully executed by the successors of Mr. Georg Gläser."
This is what the house (actually a building) looks like today.
* 17.6.1838 (Nový Jičín)
† 5.8.1917 (Nový Jičín)
businessman - hatter
nationality Austria, Austria and Hungary
an honorary citizen of the city 14.1.1910
August Hückel was a prominent industrialist, municipal politician, architect, and traveler.
In 1910 he was appointed honorary citizen of the town of Nový Jičín.
Son of Johann Albert Hückel. After taking over the hat factory, he and his brothers continued to develop their father's work. Their business soon became the leader of the entire industry in the Hapsburg monarchy. He became a patron of art, and in his life he gathered a large number of art collections. Part of it was dedicated to the Municipal Museum in Nový Jičín.
His wife became Angela, born Hosch (8. 6. 1848 Grybow - 6. 8. 1914 Karlovy Vary), daughter of Ferdinand Hosch. Their children were: Stefanie (18. 10. 1869 Nový Jičín -?), Hugo Johann Ferdinand (24. 5. 1871 Nový Jičín -?), Augustin Reiner František (30. 6. 1882 - 16. 5. 1934 Nový Jičín) and Friedrich Paul (22. 6. 1885 Nový Jičín - 12 January 1973 Munich).
August Hückel (* 1838 - † 1917) was a senior engineer and was involved in the construction of another magnificent building in Vienna. On the corner of the Salzgries and Heinrichsgasse streets in the historic center of Vienna, the construction of a five-story corner house started by architects Heinrich Claus (1835 - † 1892) and Josef Gross (* 1828 - † 1891) in August 1881 in cooperation with Auguste Hückel . In May 1882, the construction company of Anton Wasserburger completed a monumental building in a neo-historical style designed to serve as a business and residential house by Augusta Hückel. His architecture, in some details, recalls the construction of Hückel's villas, and it is quite possible that August Hückel had a share in designing them. The Vienna House became the home of several business firms such as M. Popper & Co., Kann & Weiss and others. The investment of funds has certainly paid off. However, the construction lost much significance after the First World War, when Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed. New frontiers broke and disrupted economic and communication ties with the center of gravity of Central European trade. However, the house of August Hückel still stands in Vienna and Schweizer Pension is here.