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Fabrikation von Damen- und Herren- Filzhüten, Der Deustchen Hutmacher Zeitung (1933)


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Fabrikation von Damen- und Herren- Filzhüten, Der Deustchen Hutmacher Zeitung (1933)

Fabrication of Women's and Men's Felt Hats, German Hat Makers News (1933)

 

This book is full of valuable information regarding felt and hat manufacturing (text, drawings, photos, charts). There also advertisements at the the end of the book. To start I am posting photos of the cover, cover page and table of contents of the book.

 

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Contents:

 

I. Fashion through the Ages

 

II. History of the Hat 17

 

III. Wool Scouring 27

 

IV. Wool Hat Fabrication 43

Wool Preparation 46

Wool Felting 51

Wool Twisting 53

Wool Carbonization 56

Fulling 57

 

V. The Pre-fabrication of Wool Hats 61

Grinding 63

Roughening 64

Turning 65

Stiffening 67

Molding and Decatizing 69

Mixing 71

Finishing 72

General Occurring Errors 78

 

VI. Fur Felt Hat Fabrication 81

Fur Cutting 83

Blowing 91

Fulling 92

Felting 93

Twisting and Fulling 95

Stock Felt Hoods 96

 

Page 7

 

VI. Finished Hat Production 99

Stiff Hat Production 101

Soft Felt Hat Production 104

Women's Hats and Hat Bodies 105

Plumes Fabrication 106

 

VIII. Article from the Practice - for Practice 109

Hat Dyeing of Yesterday and Today, by Master Dyer Kurt Richter 111

Modern Dyeing Process for Wool and Fur Felt Hats, by Gustav R. Arnold 137

Wool, Properties and Processing in Hat Manufacture, by Master Dyer Kurt Richter 149

On the Issue of Acceptability of Men's Hats, C.A.P. Pellaio 165

On the Issue of Light and Wear Resistance of Wool, Hair and Velour Hats, by Master Dyer Kurt Richter 175

Hair - Velour - Real Velour - Prima Velour, by C.A.P. Pellaio 185

The Good Velour Hat of Hare Fur 186

Machining 187

Finishing 189

Quality Differences in Hare Fur 191

When Can a Velour Hat be Referred to as "Real"? 191

The Source 194

 

IX. Source directory 195

 

Page 8

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  • 2 weeks later...

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On the Issue of Light and Wear Resistance of Wool, Fur Felt and Velour Hats

 

By Master Dyer Kurt Richter

 

First, it must be pointed out that a distinction should be made between the "carrying capacity" and the "wear resistance" of a hat, and inasmuch as each finished hat that leaves the factory, has the ability to be worn with In other words, that he is "sustainable." For every producer makes all the hats, no matter what quality, edit and prepare so that they are eye-catching and pleasant tempted to buy. Otherwise, however it is with the "wear resistance"! There are now "viable" hats, which exposed after a short period of use, the influences of the weather, have changed their shape and especially the color so that they are barely recognizable. The result of such shape and color faux hats are now complaints, starting at the individual buyer, make their way through retailers and wholesalers, and terminate in the factory office. many of these complaints, however, are sometimes not justified, especially when it comes to cheap goods. From a cheap hat can hardly be a good or even very require good "wear resistance" because the producer for producing the appropriate raw materials and dyes used, which must be available for sale price in line. Such a hat is therefore possess only a moderate "wear resistance ". The "wear resistance" of the hat depends entirely on its quality and rises or falls with it. From an expensive and good hat is therefore a very good wear resistance demand, on the other hand of a cheap and therefore of lower quality hat a less good, so even supporting authenticity.

 

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Besides, a finding which can also be made when buying a any other garment. That's why every buyer of a hat should first be clear about the claims that he wants to put on the hat. Regarding the color fastness is probably also everywhere and eager powered (Indanthren) advertising colorfast dyes have contributed to the elucidation of the business world and the audience that they today have greater claims to represent than years ago. To the layman, it is of course unknown, that dyeing (indanthren) colorfast dyes in the hat cannot be applied, since they are only for dyeing plant and some synthetic fibers are suitable, and that the dyes used to color the hats have no claim in respect of authenticity, with (Indanthren) colorfast dyes to be compared. (With the exception of vat dyes, which are dyeing but today rarely used in the hat.)

 

Many a businessman is faded in his display due to exposure to sun goods only welcome occasion to enforce a discount for a whole lot delivered hats. Whether the hats were dyed but for the purpose that they were asked possibly for weeks in the biggest and most glaring sunshine daylight in the window to show? This question is applied principally to cheaper goods and taken into account.

 

On the other hand, it may also be the inappropriate handling and careless treatment of the hat by its owner, that prove to shape and color resistant than not enough. The slogan: "For every purpose the right hat" is still not sufficiently appreciated when buying Thus, there are people who said for the trip, while visiting sporting events or for longer stays in the mountains or by the sea, where they often for hours. strongest sunlight, smoke, dirt and dust are exposed to bright solid color modes, hats wear and then wonder if such a hat after a short use "over" is. But who provides an expedient, in this case, therefore, travel and sport oriented headgear, which cannot happen, because these hats are already designed such that they resist the influences of the weather and the atmosphere better. Even in the bright tint of the hat is a cause of faults to. When did it used to be so given brightly colored hats as, in recent years? And the lighter the shade, the lower the light fastness of the dyeing. First and foremost, just bright colored hats are affected by the complaint. This is clearly yes, here already changed a little fade out one component of the original shade. A dark hat must be very badly stained when it is not sufficient in light fastness.

 

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But even with the best and most expensive dyes staining only be achieved that are up to a certain limit lightfast an Absolute fastness to light, there is not level.

 

Which claims regarding "wear resistance ", the customer can now make a good hat The answer is:.?

 

Staining of the hat to be at least as genuine that they remain in communication with a corresponding temperature of the molding, the influence of light and weather resists, as the question hat its carrier provides services.

 

while it is for the manufacturers to give by using corresponding raw materials to make a good and healthy basis and it must be left to the expert of the finished production to transform the stump into a form genuine hat, is noted here only to the possibilities that the hat dyers, to meet the demands of the clientele in the color fastness.

 

The hat dyer of today are compared to his colleagues from 30-40 years ago a much larger number of dyes available, which enable it to produce all imaginable nuances in best-to-moderate fastness The use of this or that color substance depends primarily on the importance which influences production to be exposed to, the material.; Further, its quality and the purpose to which the finished product is intended (whether men's or women's hat) to be considered. The authenticity of claims namely that they are put in a man's hat, are significantly larger than the lady's hat. When hair and felt hat is the classification. not make between men's and women's hat to the extent as in the wool hat because here presuppose the higher se prices of raw materials, the more embarrassing fabrication of the hat, so oF thus contingent consideration higher price of the finished product, a better overall fastness than the wool hat. With the large number of dyes that will bring out the colors of factories, it is for the hat dyers naturally not easy to determine the right product so readily for any purpose. Only some practical experience bring it with you, which dye combinations are to be applied in each case.

 

In the hat industry dyeing in various manufacturing phases takes place:

 

1. in the loose wool or loose hair,

2. in the half-fulled felt (Labratz)

3. fulled in the finish, soft stumps, and

4. in the finished felted, stiff stumps.

 

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The latter method is only used when the hat making stiff, but it also colors here in many cases still un stiffened before stumps. Light, medium and dark fashion colors you colored previously in LabRatz, but this is only a matter of time if you also not the dyeing of the finished felted hoods will prefer using modern dyeing machines. So far, came only in black for this dyeing procedure to be dyed lots into consideration.

 

For the dyeing of loose material, which - apart from some exceptional cases - is only for the mixed color (heather) hat use only dyes come into consideration, in addition to good light fastness especially good rubbing, washing, milling, carbonation and must have fastness to decatizing. These properties combine primarily among the general term "mordant dyes" in the trade coming products. Below are from this group, the standard types, called the dyeing part of the "iron" stock of the hat and of IG Farben, Frankfurt am Main are generated:

 

Chrome Yellow DF, acid chrome yellow 3 GL, RL extra Anthracengelb BN, Säurealizarinflavin R, chrome orange GR, powder, Säurealizarinrot B, G, Anthracenchromrot A, Salicinbordo R, Säureanthracenbraun KE, RH extra Palatinchrombraun WN, Säurealizarinbraun CR, Anthrachinonviolett-pow-der , Real pickling blue B, BC, EC, acid chrome blue RR, 3G, radio chrome blue B, Alizarinblauschwarz B powder, Säurealizarinblauschwarz R conc. alizarin light gray BBL powder, chromium Fast Green G, Isochromgrün BF 3BF, radio-chrome green B, Alizarine Cyanine 5G powder, G Extra , Diamond Black F, PV, PBB, Chromogenschwarz ET, Chromogenschwarz ETOO special, Palatinchromschwarz CSTX, Säurealizarinschwarz ETG, acid Walk-black STBN.

 

The latter product is actually not pronounced chrome dyes and also results in no post-treatment with potassium dichromate colorations of good overall fastness. Acid Walk Black STBN should be used everywhere, where the material to be dyed in quality requires special protection. A post-treatment in this way the dyed black 'demand-calculated from the weight of the goods only a Chrome Potash amount (Chromkalimenge) of 0.5 percent, and improves the wash fastness of the dyeing.

To produce particularly lightfast fashion colors is the combination of Alizarinlichtgrau BBL, Säurealizarinflavin. R and Säurealizarin-red B is recommended. Shades that can be achieved due to their special vividness with Chromierungsfarbstoffen not, one stained by the concomitant use of chromium-resistant acid dyes that are also proportionate good walk and wash-fast. This purpose are:

 

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Walk Yellow 0, HG, H5G, Walk scarlet G, Alizarinrubinol R, Guinea-red 4R, Alizaringeranol B powder, Formylviolett S4B, acid violet 5BK, Wool Fast Violet B, Wool Fast Blue GL, BL, Brillantindocyanin 6B, G, Alizarin pure blue B powder, Patent Blue A, Real Guinea Green B, Alizarine Cyanine G Extra powder Alizarindirektgrün 5G.

 

The brands mentioned result - not applied in too high percentages - colorings of their intended purpose authenticity.

When using the listed colors, it is advisable to stain with acetic acid and to deplete with formic acid or sulfuric acid, the color baths, as this good, care less loss of staining is safe.

 

Interest here next autochrome and monochrome coloring especially the Met achrom colors. The colorations produced therewith are behind those of Nachchromierungs dyes in no way back in, their authenticity. As a result of their less complicated dyeing procedure they offer the dyer various advantages. Also some post-chrome dyes, direct dyes and some acid can be dyed by this method can be applied in combination with Metachrom dyes. The following products are at issue here:

 

Metachromgelb GA, RA, Chrome Yellow DF, Anthracengelb BN, chrome genuine yellow 2G, R, Metachromorange 3R dopp, Metachromrot G, monochrome red 5G, Säurealizarinrot G, Säurechromrot B, Alizarinrubinol GW, R powders, Chromechtbordo A, chrome real garnet BL , Metachrombraun V, An-thracenchromatbraun EB, WG, Metachromolivbraun G, Metachromoliv GG, Metachrombrillantblau RL, Indigokarminblau A, Brillantindocyanin 6B, Alizarinreinblau B, Alizarinlichtg-rough BBLW, Säurealizaringrau G, Antra-chino violet powder, chromium Fast Green G, Alizarine Cyanine G Extra Pul- ver, 5G powder Anthracenchromatgrün KFF extra Metachromblauschwarz 2BX, Alizarinblauschwarz B, Metachromschwarz A, AG.

 

When dyeing after Metachromverfahren is important to ensure that the material is completely free of acid gets into the dye bath. The To-stood that carbonized wool, which still contains acid residues, mixed use neutral wool, comes to color, often gives rise to unegalem loss of color, with dark shades and even black from dirt-colorings. The cause of this is that the acid-containing fiber to the dye rapidly and intensively absorbs as the neutral fiber, and premature and thus insufficient fixing at these points occurs, while in the neutral fiber of the fixation of the dye significantly proceeds more slowly and the staining is completely developed after 11/2 - 2 hours of cooking. The dye baths draw using the Metachrombeize good and require only at medium and dark tones of a corresponding Säurenachsatzes, whereby expedient only used acetic acid.

 

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Some products of the listed mordant dyes beat in the carbonation, but returns to the original color when neutralize again. Staining with dyes such as: Wool Fast Violet B, Brill Antin-docyanin 6B, Chromoxanreinblau and similar forming the source of constant Lichtechtheitsbemängelungen And should be for better goods qualities ge avoided. Where we provide the highest standards for its light fastness and support to a Melangewollhut, whether for dyeing of loose material vat dyes, in particular the Helindonfarben IG Farben, recommended. Because the wool is dyed in the vat at a low temperature in a short time, they retain over the long cooking, as required by the dyeing with chrome mordant dyes, all the good qualities that are required in spinning, felting and fulling to achieve a good quality ; it remains weic h, open and retains its full elasticity. Basic condition is also here, as in the Metachromfarbstoffen: acid-free material!

 

To dye loose hair is used in the above-mentioned rule chrome dyes and one here works in the same manner as loose wool, hair material requires only about 2-3 times the amount of dye. Since loose hair sometimes contains traces of mercury stain that would affect the dyeing process is unfavorable, the material is first treated briefly with hot water, the residue is removed, and then pickled it off with cream of tartar and Chromkali; then it is done coloring. Acid additives are to reduce the dyeing of hair stained to refrain in light tones quite possibly, as already pulling out by the stain of the dye. When dyeing even withstand boiling should be avoided. Since the hair much easier than felted wool, especially if it be traded with Quecksilbernitratbeize was. Dyeing is best below, but close to the cooking point. Except mordant dyes are often also Supramin and Sulf on dyes, also some sauerfärbende alizarin dyes used. These allow you to work quickly and save the chrome treatment, and are really against einmeliertes, raw and different colored hair.

 

Wool, hair and Velourhutlabratzen or hood is dyed now little more with mordant dyes, as their coloring, for these purposes, is too cumbersome and time consuming. Here used to sour pulling in the main direct dyes, which have an excellent overall fastness, allow you to work quickly in the dyeing and much more handy for the dyer than the mordant dyes. In addition, the material will be also largely preserved, this is not the case with mordant dyes.

 

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The following dyeing acid dyes come for LabRatz into consideration and are for the hat Dyer's "not devoid products:

Radio, Supramin, Amidoecht, alizarin and • anthracyanine dyes:

 

Radio Yellow R pat., Supramingelb G, R, Amidoechtgelb R, real light-yellow-brands, real light orange G, Amidoechtorange G, Supraminrot 2G, B, 3B, Amidoechtrot GG, BB, Radiorot VB pat., Alizarincyanolrot B pat., Supraminbordo B, Wollechtrot BL, Alizarinrubinol R, GW, Alizarindirekt-blue A, AGG, AR, Alizarincyanol GSE pat., Supraminblau FB, R, cyan enthroi BGAOO, Alizarinsaphirol SE, anthracyanine brands, alizarin astrol B, Brilliant Acid Blue A, V, Radio Navy B, Victoria Navy DK, acid Navy GL, Alizarinirisol R, Anthracyaninviolett 3B, alizarin geranol B, Real Acid Violet 10B, Acid Violet 5BK, Guinea Real Green B, Anthracyaningrün B, L 3GL, Cyanolechtgrün G, Wool Green BS, Biebricher Patent Black 4AN, Azosäureschwarz tsp extra, Amido Black ATT , A2G, Naphtylaminsehwarz 4B, Victoria Black B, Kashmir Black TN, Supra minschwarz BR, Hutschwarz BF separately.

 

For hair and black Velour following brands especially are recommended:

 

Velourbrillantschwarz B, Velourechtschwarz KH hochcono, Supra minschwarz BR, Velourschwarz extra Sulfoncyaninschwarz B.

 

Sulfonfarbstoffe:

 

The Sulfonfarbstoffe differ in the dyeing procedure of the previously mentioned products in that they may be stained only weakly acidic, which might best with acetic acid. The dyeings obtained have good to very good overall fastness, and can also be used for dyeing of loose material, but bearing in mind that the material free of acid gets into the dye bath. Also Labratze which are to be stained with Sulfonfarbstoffen and are carbonized-Siert must be neutralized with ammonia or sodium carbonate solutions. The following products of Sulfonklasse and some weakly acidic to be colored dyes are for Huffärberei into consideration:

 

Sulfongelb 5G, R, Anthracenrot, Säureanthracenrot 3BL, 5BL, Sul-fonsäuregrün B, 2BL Sulfoncyanin brands (only slightly de-katurecht 1) Sulfonblauschwarz, Sulfoncyaninschwarz B, sulfonic black 2B, Alizarinreinblau B, Wool Fast Blue GL, BL, Brillantalizarin phthalocyanine 3G.

 

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The listed under Group A and B dyes are mainly used for men's wool hats, also for men's and women's hair and Velourhüte into consideration. For ladies woolen hats dyestuffs of cheaper cost, but must have very good lightfastness. Other authenticity claims are hardly in question, as is women's wool hat in contrast to the gentleman's less stress during fabrication and is not set off special effects during the same. Besides, a ladies wool is hat not for years sup-ported, but only "a fashion long" to be then perhaps-worked again for coloring ladies wool hats are suitable addition to the dyes of group A and B following.:

 

Flavazin E3GL, tartrazine SE, Amidogelb E, real wool yellow G, Orange IIB, Kristallponceau 6RF, Palatinscharlach 4R, Ponceau B extra, Victoria scarlet R, 3R, Croceinscharlach IC, Echtponceau L, Echtsäurecochenille L, Amidorot L, Amidonaphtolrot BB, Azophloxin 2G, Azogrenadin S, azo grenadin S, Azofuchsin 6B, Guineaechtrot BL, 2BL Sorbinrot BB, An-thracyaninbraun GL, RL, Supraminbraun R, Guinea Brown R, 2R, RP, 2RP, Radio Braun B, Guinea light blue SE, anthracyanine 3FLS, Alizarin direct blue E3BO, ESB, Alizarincyanol EF, CA, Patent Blue A, Cyananthrol BGA, Supramingrün G, Alizarinemeraldol G, Neptune Green SGX, alkali Real-green 3G, 10G, Cyanolechtgrün G, Real Wool Green CB, acid violet 4B extra, Acid Violet 6BNB, 10B, Säurecyanin BD, Amidoblau GGR etc.

 

The P as tinecht dyes IG Farben earn in the hat dyeing attention because they provide very fast dyeings with a simple dyeing procedure. To dye from black to stiff hats in wool and hair are, especially the Black Diamond-P-brands, as well as the weakly acidic to be dyed black-sulf oncyanin B. These products have, despite their cheap mounting depth for excellent fastness properties. Especially the Black Diamond have a fantastic light, acid and potting (pan-fastness).

 

Besides the previously mentioned products IG Farben interested in the hat nor the dyeing dyes of JR Geigy, Grenzach (Baden) and the "Society of Chemical Industry" (Ciba), Basel / Switzerland. From the first-mentioned company was the highly acidic dyes for coloring Erio and Eriochrome dyes, and successfully introduce the weakly acidic polar colors in the hat industry, the "Ciba", however, recommends their Kiton - Respectively.

 

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Kitonecht colors, the full acid color than ordinary acid dyes, supplemented by the A liz arins ap hirblau - brands, as well as the very real Ne ol of dyes (identical to the Palatinecht colors IG Farben) and for the wool real dyeing their chrome genuine Naphtochrom and Pottingchromfarbstoffe. As well suited for black on stiff hats has become the weakly acidic to be dyed cloth-real-black B proved.

The number of those referred to in, each group dyes is of course much larger. Because of the limited space, only the most prominent representatives of the various product ranges were mentioned.

 

Then, thereto was still an important point drawn to the fact of not is directly related to the topic of this article, but still deserves to be mentioned. This is the issue of shelf life, especially the moth fastness of wool, hair and Velourhüten or stumps. The damage caused in hat and Stump camps by the "moth-eaten" are not be underestimated and bring various losses for the manufacturers as well as wholesalers and retailers, as such damaged goods often must be sold below cost or completely unusable . Previously applied moth-proofing, such as naphthalene, benzene, carbon disulfide and other strong smelling, partly harmful for humans products have so far still proved inadequate, and that the fact that such a moth-made goods was only temporarily protected. In prolonged exposure to air, these were moth-proofing partially or even completely ineffective. It was there-fore to create a moth-proofing, that made the product unfit for human consumption, so moths genuine., this object, which employed a long-standing chemistry and technology has, in an exemplary way the IG Farbenindu industry-solved. The term "Eulan" she brings a moth protection products on the market, which must be almost defined as "ideal", and in its effect probably should only stand there. Neutral, scientific agencies at home and abroad have repeatedly eulani-based goods tested and found to be the same even after years of use was still completely mothproofed.

 

Eulan appears in several brands, namely: Eulan new, owls and NK Eulan W separately. Since the Eulanisierung is simple in execution and can be performed without large additional costs, it should be introduced in valuable plants as a natural measure consistently. For the Eulanisierung of wool, hair and velour felt especially Eulan are new or Eulan W specially considered.

 

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The first mark is given dyebath as an addition to, when the goods are to be acidic or chrome colored and eulanisiert. It works with 3 percent of the weight of the goods Eulan new triggers by over-pouring boiling-hot water and are the clear solution slowly with stirring into the dye bath. Advantageously, you would specify the Eulanzusatz only at a temperature of the bath of 60 ° C, since Eulan easily results in deposits in deeper temperate baths. Goods as is commonly used for coloring. • Eulan W specially suitable mainly for the after-treatment of colored felts. It works with 2 percent Eulan W specially the weight of the goods at the cold bath and fleet of about 1:10 to 1:20, and moves the material in the tub or where the Eulanflotte circulate in the apparatus. The effect of "Eulan new" is not affected by washing, while that of "W Eulan extra" something down-impaired. For the best hat manufacture a Eulani-tion of the finished dyed and fulled Stumpens by post-treatment with Eulan W recommends separately. The "Yellow Hand in black box"** is the sign for completely "moth real" goods.

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II. History of the Hat

 

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Even from ancient times penetrates the customer to us that the people her head adorned with a hat, a cap, with helmets or other headgear. It is very probable that at that time the headgear was less a protection against the weather, though this feature was taken into account in some folks, as much more a decorative addition to clothing, but in many cases a rank-and emblem with strong symbolic, impact. How long will the human race already wearing headgear, is no longer observed. From old traditions, from monuments and stone carvings can only be seen that the headdress is certainly as old as the clothes at all. In the ancient royal tombs at Persepolis pictures have been found on which the rulers of that time are shown with high wigs; In contrast, stand by their subjects bare-headed. So here's the hat is already determined as a symbol of Fr Unit whit. Similarly, it was Kaiser rich in ancient Greece and the Roman, where the slaves shaved his head, in order to emphasize its lack of freedom yet.

 

In medieval times, this tradition continues. The Spanish Grande was allowed because he was the king almost equal, in his presence wear the hat. From the Round Table of King Arthur is said that the noble head covered with its well known by many legends feast celebrated. The biggest problem in this connection is the custom that every king, a hat wearing as the freest people of the state, otherwise no one co-is owed: the crown. From the "Sun King" of France, Louis XIV, tells you a little incident that really characterizes what value in this time Läuften the hat was attached when the king of England his princely colleagues visited in Versaille, he was, by special disposal Louis', allowed to keep in the common board his hat on his head, this, however, only on condition that he ventilated the hat as soon as he was talking with Louis.

 

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"Hatter and hat shop" from the time of 1G. Century. A somewhat primitive representation, which dates from 1528.

 

Hatter of the German Renaissance. Woodcut by Jost Amman from 1568 with a quote from Hans Sachs

 

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"Knöpf,-- u. string & hat maker", was ranked the 17th century, who also, like the halberd shows in the militia as a corporal.

 

A homage to the hat! Old engraving, a Huterer, at that time, called Huter "of the Middle Ages depicting.

 

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Since at that time known mainly ate with their hands - cutlery were still quite unknown -, one can easily imagine that the English king hat dripping after completion of meal sauces and fat and delicious products of French cuisine to the shoulders and back of the King of Albion dripping. Besides these and similar historical and anecdotal facts but also bear witness to popular proverbs and sayings of the value of the hat in public and social life of earlier days. How does one know that one "with his hat in his hand through the whole country is" that the father makes to get "his daughters" under the hood ", also believed that it was hard, a lot of heads with bring many senses "under one roof" to. From a veritable Hatter trade until you hear something from relatively late times. These messages were also only fixed and for posterity, as the craftsmen; banded together to guilds and guilds that among themselves cultivated a lively correspondence, and made internally rich records, mainly of an administrative, but also craft art are the oldest sources about this area probably the guild documents from the 17th century that have been found. These include primarily the general ledger of the hat stofferder within Hamborg and the Filt and Hodmaker in Bremen. Moreover us a book of a Saxon-Protestant clergy, "The hat do trade", 'get, that must have been composed around 1705, and a similar work of Abbe. Moel, published in Paris in 1760. These-called records and writings are the first to bring the Comprehensive both on the organization of guilds as well as on the manufacturing methods of the former Huterer. however interesting are two even older documents through which we learn alliances of the existence of Hatter, and be therefore still in short are:., there are two federal letters in which meet the artisans of several Rhenish cities a convention in order to fit into the trade practices, and more Federal statutes, and to approach It includes specific provisions on teaching and journeymen times, about the rights and duties of the master included.'s even a hint of tariff can be found in the prevailing wage regulations. Trading Agreement shall have the object of restricting competition and they where both parties harmful off. In it you can quietly suggest the Origins of today's cartel system. The letters are from the years 1477 and 1512. Interesting Hatter of alliances also knew the hatter Karl Mayser, Ulm, to tell the occasion of the second General Assembly of the Association of specialty hat shops in Alsace-Lorraine detail-tions (1911).

 

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Italian Capper from the time of the 17th century

 

Italian Straw Hat makers from the time of the 17th century

 

Mr. Mayser led on this occasion, for example, that the journeyman of the Middle Ages by paragraph 2 of the old Hatter regulations had to store a difficult feat, namely, a pointed hat, a hunting hat with wide strap and a pair of felt socks that reach the carrier, right up to the body should. The feat was allowed to work only in the home of his training masters and the journeyman had in this period entertained the Master. Failure to pass the test of time and money were lost. One can see that the master's examination at that time was a costly thing to the no small knowledge, but also an ordinary savings bank was needed. Since the above book should speak much of the working methods of the modern hat industry, it is probably appropriate to speak about the technical skills of the people who knew no electric powered touring machine, still no Multi Roller or steam boiler. Also on these questions are quite detailed messages from a bygone age. Remarkable are especially the records which resigned in 1799 over the then state of the Hat in a book a professional. After that played the manufacture of a hat, which was made of otter hair, as follows:

 

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From the otter skins dusty and heavily contaminated hairs were first torn out and the skins then rubbed with a stain of nitric acid and mercury. After the stain was still diluted with river water, rubbed it off the skins with this solution. After drying the skins on, they were softened and smooth and then cut. The mixture, which is now produced for a hat made of the following materials together: 6 Lot Otter Hair, 1 Lot Beaver Hair, 1 Lot Red Vognone Wool, 4 Lot Unprepared Otter Hair. These materials are four similar times were produced, which were connected by wet and felts. The Walken felt this was made in a kettle with water and yeast wine. Then the hat was drawn to a form where it dried. From 1795 we hear of a cotton hat, the excited general attention, but also had great pleased.

 

The wife of a hatter as a trader engraving by Martin Engelbrecht to in 1650.

 

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Also in Paris and London by 1799 hats made of cotton were produced. The mixtures were: grass and thistledown, refined flax, cotton, silk plants and pastures Syrian wool. That may be enough; the methods explained here briefly show already about which way had to go the Hatter of the Middle Ages in order to achieve a good result. One must never forget, however, that this often tedious work, which has provided constant experimentation and comparison search only the foundation for our modern, highly developed hat industry. Like any industry, as well as the hat is trade from very small, certainly by lay-driven beginnings, he grow; but like any industry, it also keeps the hat industry still to old, always valid principles which were the fathers of the Hat already known. But now to our final topic: the most modern wool and Haarhut fabrication, as it is now, in the 20th century operated.

 

A Hatter sells his products engraving by Martin Engelbrecht, circa 1750

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I. Fashion Through the Ages

 

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Originally, as is commonly believed, any head-covering protection against wind and weather. Later, when the man went over to the custom of disagreements with more or less dangerous tools. Weapons called to decide, was out of the weather protection also an indispensable tool in the fight against hostile-minded people. In these cases, the headdress was made of solid material, initially made of leather, and later of hard steel. Who this protection, the helmet, had done good service in the dispute, which kept him in continue, as a sign of his victory. From this custom of passing the importance of the hat as decorations ago. As now the helmet a great development was granted, which was expressed in the most elaborate forms and the most resistant materials so was second to the expansion of the symbolic meaning of headwear in nothing. Even today, you can at Oriental peoples, where the symbolic has become second nature so, find that social and professional rank levels in the manner and form of their headgear exterior features. receive. For us, this train has well preserved only in the military headgear, and then only to a very limited extent. Since you already knew early on in this way a great wealth of hat shapes and types, not a big step was necessary in order to come across the rank insignia addition to a fashionable piece of clothing. The need to harmoniously with the now daily and everyday garment of the other drapery, resulted all by itself, because taste and sense of style are not inventions of modern times. Often the emergence of a fashion now happened under a certain compulsion, illustrated by our traditional dress code in 1530, which alone the princes and nobility admits the wearing of gold and silver caps, but the rest of the people forbids.

 

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The fashionable men of the Biedermeier period (between German Neoclassicism and Romanticism)

Fashion at the time of Louis Phillipe Orleans (end of the 18th Century)

 

Dandy at the time of the French Revolution

The citizen at the time of German Neoclassicism (early 19th Century)

 

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The large crowd watched, therefore, forced to create a different headdress, which was then also finally made of silk, colorful cloth or leather. That changed itself from now on the hat fashion parallel to the fashion clothes, witnessed by the numerous extant today, contemporary portraits of the master hand of Dürer and his successors. So we know that you preferred Fur hats in the 16th century for a long time who were high and mighty, that later was high, round hats, which have a low affinity with today's top hat. In the later Middle Ages and the dawn of the modern era you can already find a deeply rooted, fashionable man with sense of security. The woman has it, probably always had. It is also noteworthy that in these fashionable as in the following times changes the headgear often had significant political changes to the cause. This goes back to the 30 Years War, finds confirmation in the Reformation, in the decisive battle for the liberation of the peasants, and finally in the French Revolution its highest experience. Through these events, some conversion of male headgear, which was an expression of bourgeois, liberal, sometimes a sign of other ways of thinking soon explained. Not infrequently, the membership was linked to a party with a special headgear. So we follow the development of the mentioned high fur hood on the beret of the 16th century to the cylinder of Monsieur a la Mode of the 17th century. With the advent, the wig is also another hat fashion was connected. You wore the three-cornered hat, eventually the cocked hat, the so-called "Swiss hat." In the last few decades, the fashion has stalled the man's hat. The man has become conservative, very conservatively measured by the smoothness with which the female sex fashionable revolutions adapts. Basically you have to keep the same headgear in the last few decades, a hat, as we all wear it. changes are only given by change of fashion colors, by a margin positions and head shapes. But in this, as it were narrow framework, the hat striving trade, that is, over the centuries grown into a sizable industry to create something new and to give fashionable appeal. while they get in earlier time Läuften the fashion something playful, but already self-evident who is today a very special flavor. It is the strong helper of the industry and trade in the battle for the buyer, in the economic struggle for success, against economic inhibitory influences.

 

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The development of the hat from the head protection against weathering rafts and against the "dear neighbor" to the perfect fashion item is a clear proof that finery, vanity and sense of beauty of the people have a major role in the fashionable design of this garment.'s Why it is essential noted when considering the production of hats on this, especially in the presence of immense importance that the fashion and,. fashionable feeling of the people, whether man or woman pose for the existence of the Fashion Industry At all times, showing this brief outline , one has worn headgear effects, embellished it and remodeled Old disappeared, New arose, -.., a process of constant change created the kaleidoscopic pano-rama of the history of hats At no time, however, people wore no headgear When it would have been fashion, either. garment omit, when would you ever not worn a hat? create this fashion, which is not, was our time, the presence was reserved. While in the past only not wearing headgear, "who had made a vow, the slave or even criminal was" - the last two were allowed to wear any headgear - while, in the present, in eastern countries, only walking with bare head deemed unworthy of a hat was, corresponding stands in European countries, and probably in America, the rare-common custom to wear a hat., the hat industry and the entire trade currently take all means to curb this activity . reasons for this "custom", which is called rightly the "hatless bad habit", lie in this time itself, the economic situation of the individual is far worse than in earlier times these days, it prohibits many new purchases even when the old is worn out long ago. keeping the hat in this situation apparently dispensable for first, so you can continue it. The peculiar view of the liquid Over the hat but is also a, product of our time. The mighty power of the sport, all light, air and sun preaches must be made responsible for this misconception. Proven fact fall the first beginnings of unemployment hat with the rise of the sport to its current popular meaning together. This finding may here suffice as an explanation. It should only be noted that also uses the science for the wearing of headgear in every way. Renowned physicians make to the harmful sequelae attentive, threatening the-those who are defenseless his head all weather conditions.

 

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Besides, documented here but also a strong taste aberration. The hat is part of the complete clothing, such as the lace of the shoe, such as the collar tie. Let him go alone does not jeopardize a well-known industry in their inventory, but also to assess the cultural level of our contemporaries very low. The fight against the hatless fashion, better hatless bad habit was recorded in all countries with energy. However, since it acted only sporadically occurring individual actions had been granted them no appreciable success. Only towards the end of 1932, a new note was carried in this fight. In the "German Hatter newspaper" appeared, repeatedly press an appeal of the editor Ernst Schaeffer to the international hat It was tradepress to the closest joint effort of hat, hat industry and trade prompted for a fight with the slogan., Against the hat unemployment for revitalization and success-ful existence of the hat industry in the world. It must, it was said in the appeal, a hat fashions World Federation are founded, which combine the industries of the times of all countries. From this panel of are the necessary studies to drive to tread expert studies of markets to hire, and finally promising international collaboration success ways of removing the hat unemployment. A leading role hygienic discussions was in the process concede. A lively folk propaganda must for widest awareness of the need for the headgear for health care . wear loading condition is, however, that the Lord also something fundamentally new and interesting, something beautiful would be offered, which is why the "hat fashions World Federation" also have the task of working for the creation of a new fashion and the greater mutability of Men headwear in ever bring. The stagnation of the fashionable men's hat was one of the reasons for the dislike which the hat compared to manifesting the Lord sometimes. In addition, programs can be conducted for the benefit of each industry of this body from all other technical questions. As this appeal in the international press an unprecedented response was the basis for further action was given. At the conclusion of this book here the international context are ready made that can be expected of an implementation of the Federation, if the economic adversity of the present these revolutionary ideas even mildly's room. The numerous concurring opinions from home and abroad can at least recognize clearly that the idea of ​​international cooperation and its correct implementation is necessary.

 

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The future may now decide where the development of men't hat fashion will contact. That is only in the club with the whole. Can develop Men's clothing, according to the previous historical. Versions of course. Maybe we are at the dawn of a new era of fashion. One thing is certain: the work and the will to live the hat industry will also be vital to their life-utterances, so the fate will be decided for the hat industry, rich fruits should confirm their strength, their creative ideas. Woman fashion is not bound to any time they ruled every hour.

 

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Hair Velour / Real (Echter) Velour / Prime (Prima) Velour

 

By C.A.P. Pellaio (English Translation By ErWeSa (Wolfgang))

 

"What is wool?" - "The hair of a sheep." "What’s a sheep?" - "A sheep? An animal,of course." "So wool is animal hair?" - "Yes." "Well, then, logically wool velour is also a kind of hair velour!

 

I have to think of this conversation with a ladies hatter when the question of the classification of velour turns up, as it almost always concerns the same or similar events. In that case, the person has already been sued for unfair competition and was now looking for experts. Not only with logic; his moreover led out of the circle of the essential, because in the industries that process animal hair, sheep hair being wool is separated strictly from other hair. In the hat industry, the term "hair" without further addition normally distinguishes rabbit hair (tame and wild rabbit hair) from other materials. For our very hardened sinner a further argument for the freest use of the term "velour" seemed to lie in the meaning of the word itself. Velour is, he explained, just the French term for velvet finishing. The Frenchman correctly calls the Velour hat that is something special and not a mere imitation of a surface processing such as wool velour, using a particular expression, "Feutre Taupé". A differentiation between actual and imitated “plush” could also be made here (in Germany) by introducing the term “brushed hat”. These remarks are not to be accepted either. But let us leave the French example quietly aside, in Germany there is a well-defined definition of the velour hat which prevails.

 

There is? No, there was. With the major velour fashion especially this last winter has provided us with many a thing must confuse you. Therefore a clarification is necessary.

 

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Moreover, this is a matter of a very interesting product of millinery, which well deserves to be considered more closely as to its becoming and its nature. The question of what hair velour, real or prime velour is will find a natural solution.

 

The Good Velour Hat Made of Hare Hair.

 

It is probably no longer possible to identify whether velour was a deliberate imitation of the effect of velvet. In any case, it tries to replicate this really nice variation of a surface treatment, and so the main target of velour fabrication is to generate an upright, evenly shorn surface rich of gloss. It is now crucial that these requirements can by no means be met within the art of hat-making by a suitable finishing; i. e. subsequent treatment of the surface. It is known and undisputed that only one single raw material, namely hare hair, has satisfactory suitability, and furthermore, that not a pure finishing production step, but only a special technique of the total manufacturing ensures the maintenance of the velour effect when worn. Hare hair is much sturdier and glossier than rabbit hair. By a suitable process, a hot water brushing procedure, it can be made even better fitting for the velvety finishing, because its natural curliness can be straightened, it can be polished and it can be kept from matting, i. e. the felting of the open fibers of the cover through the influence of air humidity, pressing of the fingers etc. Rabbit hair, and naturally the best, tends to the strongest felting, especially under the action of hot liquors. It is well clear that this different behavior of the-two materials for velour hat fabrication and for the assessment of the "hair velour" and "hare hair velour" is of crucial importance.

 

Whereas the first processing of the velour cone – the “Fachen” = the generation of the fabric, - the felting, the dry solidification, - the launching and milling, i. e. the wet felting of the “Labratz” as the cone is called now, basically is the same as with rabbit hair, the subsequent production steps differ significantly from each other. With hare hair, the final effect is prepared very early, i.e. during the first stages of the raw fabrication. It should again be emphasized that this long-established procedure for the production of good velour h a s to be followed, and furthermore that one can only count on satisfactory results with hare hair. A replacement for the old, laborious and expensive technique of the production of gloss by chemical means or by reinforcing the fiber has not yet been found; the means that are known cannot even roughly achieve the effect the old method can achieve.

 

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The Machining

 

Thus, while the smooth or rough hair hat, apart from one or two unimportant manipulations in the raw fabrication, does not undergo any process of machining of the surface, hare hair velour is provided quite early with a hair cover which is polished (i.e. brushed), dulled (scratched) and kept uniform (clipped) in constant change. The cone is of course very loose when it is brushed early. If you brush at that moment with suitable, rather short, consequently hard bristle-brushes in energetic rotatory movements clockwise and counter-clockwise the surface will get a cover of floccus (or fluff) that is getting denser and denser. Hand brushing is done at big, polygonal tables* the surfaces of which are inclined, ending in a vat of boiling water. The head, the sides or the edge of the cones are dipped into this brushing liquor to which acids or other chemicals are added before the continuous “tours” of the brush because, as experience teaches, goods brushed very wet and hot show the most beautiful effect. High water temperature, which is associated with heavy steam development and the monotonous work in a stooping posture make the work of the Velour Brusher to a special effort. The process when brushing is not entirely clear. The most plausible theory is that it is a polish by the bristles of the brush; it (the polish) is particularly intensive as the bristle penetrates the hair cover better and thus polishes the hair on all sides in the grasping movement. Thereby, the fiber reflects the light much stronger, thus looking shinier. Anyway, the brushing increases the gloss in a way that cannot be achieved with hare hair of best quality treated with means otherwise suitable for the creation of gloss. So we state here that hare hair alone is not enough. Unbrushed hare hair does not only lack the sturdy cover which can probably be attributed to the fact that the nap, after being clipped (shorn) shorter and shorter is stretched by the brushing thus losing its natural curliness, the brushing with hot water also takes, as a plausible theory says, the barbs out of the hair which would cause felting when worn. It is certain that non-brushed hare hair velour shows shortcomings when worn that otherwise are typical for rabbit hair velour.

 

*Rare photo of Mayser's Velour Manual Wet Brushing (1925)

http://germanaustrianhats.invisionzone.com/index.php?/topic/3-mayser-hutfabrik/page-6&do=findComment&comment=1000

 

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The production now continues in such a way that the pile (or nap, tuft) generated by brushing is reinforced by scratching. Brushing alone is by far not enough; mostly the velour gets “tight” only after repeated scratching. The tighter (or denser) the cover , the better is the gloss, the more beautifully the floccus (or fluff) stands and appears as “sparse” (or thin, scanty) hair allows the eye to see to the bottom. The bottom of single piece colored goods – single piece coloring is the rule today so that advantages and drawbacks of Labratz coloring shall not be treated here -mostly is slightly lighter than the hair of the cover. This creates an increased unsightly impression of a defective hair surface. It is clear that the scratching affects the goods, thus harming the felt core of too bad or too light qualities. Those “scratched up” spots become noticeable in the hue as darker, sometimes pronounced yellow-green stains and this already with minor harms; when affected more severely the result are thin spots in the felt which only yield linty (or fuzzy, nappy) hair. They particularly show up where the felt has to be lighter and thus is more extended, i.e. in the top plate part and the transition to the neck. It is also clear that the scratched out hair cannot have any gloss. So one scratches, clips (shears?) the tips and then brushes again, two or three times alternately in order to get out what is still possible. Clipping between the brushing processes is essential as the scratching tears out long, curled hair; it would be pointless to brush this as the long tips cover the shaft (or stem?) of the hair which make the upright floccus (or fluff). (The unclipped (unshorn) velour hair is called “Flamand”, in this case the hair is long, undulated, soft and glossy as it reflects a lot of light. When the tips are clipped off and the hair is ironed all around or from top to bottom one talks about “Soleil”. Most difficult is the production of upright “open” velour because in this case a particular tightness (or density?) and sturdiness of the hair is necessary and it is significantly harder to produce the same amount of gloss as where an entire, smooth surface displays.)

 

Scratching, a less complicated work step, is partly handwork, partly machine work. The problem of the construction of machines is less difficult as with brushing, which has already seen and rejected many models. Mechanical clipping (or shearing) has been resolved completely satisfactory. Clipping is done with a quickly rotating, horizontal sharing cylinder to which the cones that are scratched cover, mounted tightly on a metal cone, are brought close to.

 

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The “Shearing” - . i.e. the distance between cone and blade, which then influences the length of the hair - is adjustable. It is clear that with every treatment, especially when the felt is extended i. e. loses some of its binding, young hair, new fluff hair, emerges. Thus one shears again conically after dyeing or shaping on head trimming machines or after finishing with manual clippers with electric drive as they are now used also by hairdressers

 

Mistakes which are due to shearing are almost only noticed by the expert. Cones are “mis-shorn”, i.e. shorn too short mostly on one side on the head part or on the edge. The defect is due to fact that the thickness of the individual cones and its relationship between head part and edge varies, whereas the machine remains fixed. So if a head part is unusually thick it gets too closely to the blade for 1 – 2 mm and is shaved almost bald. You re-scratch these spots and shear them again. As they are not brushed and the hair has to be taken out of the core they are noticed by the attentive eye. Defects which are more common – they are due to bad work with the scissors – are uneven shearing or streaks that were shorn in. (Uneven shearing must not be confused with a fuzzy/nappy cover. Uneven shearing means small differences in the length of the hair, linty fuzzy/nappy hair a complete change of the effect of shearing.) The furry, long-haired spots one sometimes finds on the extreme edge especially of clamped hats are also due to carelessness; here the screws of the shearing cone held the cone when being shorn so that these small rectangles aren’t shorn at all once or several times.

 

The Finishing

 

The trimming of the velour which is always preceded by careful extension / pulling – the cover must always keep its grain so that there are as few worn spots as possible – requires special care. In former times velour wasn’t stiffened with shellac but with tragacanth* or similar means to keep the hat quite soft. One seems to have refrained from this practice in general as shellac is more wearable, on the other hand it makes (the hats) brittle. The use of wooden models which leave the velour much softer than metal is no longer unwritten law. Because of the general deterioration of quality the work of the finisher whose task is to finish the cover off evenly, to make the finished felt smooth yet soft, hasn’t become easier.

 

*A white or reddish plant gum used in the food, textile, and pharmaceutical industries.

 

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The most essential thing is working through the pile (tuft/nap), which is moistened and brushed with soft finishing scratching-cats or brushes with the grain to get the hairs into one direction, ironed for gloss and finally erected by hand by touring* or, even better, by circular brushing. There mustn’t remain any clusters, the pile (nap/tuft) must be worked through completely. New hair mustn’t be torn out either, the shape mustn’t suffer and the stiffening of the rim must be regulated. One helps oneself as well as possible by ironing, touring*, brushing beating and polishing in order not only to conserve the goods but to improve them. The known chemical means are, however, only useful for a temporary deception. Only a well prepared cone, i.e. densely milled, well brushed, neatly shorn quality can be finished well.

 

What about the Fulling (of which, as we know, the wearabilty of the hats depends in general? Does not what we have said about the raw material and the strongly affecting finishing speak against the probability that velour can be worn properly? Here we can state: on the one hand the necessary high weight of the velour is a certain guarantee for sufficient performance of the felt in the completed condition. Furthermore a milling process begins after every scratching, when brushing or in a separate working process which tightens the loosened fabric over and over again. In former times this went to such lengths that one tightened the cones to their size almost exclusively during brushing by exerting special pressure when operating the brush. But the machine roller of today sufficiently guarantees dense felt provided the material is suitable and the working method good. The strength of the felt sometimes expends to such a measure, particularly because of the nature of the work, that the cones are like leather and can make difficulties when drawn on the templates/models. In former times there was an additional factor: velour was categorically not dyed through; the core was not to be “burnt”, so it was not affected by boiling. The stain of chromium dyeing or the formation of varnish in wood dyeing contributed to making the felt tough. When such a hat then was nailed up (for the stretched-in Clamp) twice which was only possible on wooden models/templates it resisted all influences for years on end. Today dyeing through is essential because of the trimmed edges; varnish has long been replaced by acid dyes. Yet the Fulling can and has to be as dense as possible as the formation of fuzzy/nappy hair cannot be avoided when finishing the product.

 

*The hat is put on a block an then rotated so that the brushes can be applied to it.

 

https://youtu.be/kx0JP4OS46c?t=327

 

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Since hare hair is pretty sturdy, it breaks more easily than rabbit hair, particularly at the center of the head part, which is bent repeatedly during brushing and milling. There also velour made from the best materials often have a break, a "notch". A brushing and milling defect which is due to inferior qualities on the other hand is breakage, breaks in different places due to lacking felting abilities i.e. lacking elasticity.

 

Quality Differences in Hare Hair

 

The most precious hair stems from the back. Depending on its dimension it is classified into Blumenrück / Flowers Back(very rare) , Kronenrück / Crowns Back(rare), Schwarzrück / Black Back or Reinrück / Purely Back . If we leave white and blue sides or even the underside at the back, i. e. if we process the whole fur, significant differences in quality will be the result. The qualities also depend on the countries of origin. Saxony e.g. can boast good hare, while the Nordic and Russian white hare cannot be used. This is surprising, because the effects of temperature, i.e. the coldness of each winter play an important role in the natural selection of the animals and the quality of the hides. The season is so important that a particularly poor quality is called “summer back” (the fur of the back of a hare killed in the summer). Only the final product allows the best assessment; especially the gloss is an excellent feature for the quality of the raw material. Thus the term "hare hair" alone doesn’t mean anything; hair from the tail of the hare e.g. is the most inferior quality you can think of, and yet the untrimmed hare stomach is only about one-third of the value of a normal Schwarzrück / Black Back. So only a velour hat which has a certain quality level can be called well wearable, notwithstanding that an inferior brushed velour must be more expensive than a clean or smooth hair hat.

 

When can a Velour Hat be Called "Real"?

 

This brings us back to our starting point. We have determined what is required from the hare hair hat; further that you can expect all that just from brushed hare hair hat. Thus a velour hat is "real” when the preconditions are made for it so that the desired velvet effect is really permanent.

 

At the present state of the art only such kinds of hare hair can meet the commercial requirements, which can withstand the necessary hot water brushing process without a damage of the structure of the felt. A hare hair hat that is made from the most inferior hare hair and has barely been brushed has not to be considered as real velour. Good hare hair quality that only aims at gloss, and thus does not meet the requirements of a well wearable cover, can likewise not be called real velour, because the gloss of real velour, which has, by the way, a “life” typical only for velour, is at the same time the guarantee for the mechanical finishing of the fiber which eliminates the tendency to felting.

 

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"Real(Echter) Velour", which cannot be said clearly enough, is just a collective term for the many quality grades that are possible within the designated frame, i.e. above the lowest permissible gradation.

There is no ultimate guarantee for quality in this term, but only for the use of a material and a working method that differs significantly from all the other attempts to generate the same effect. Only the term "Prima (Prime) Velour" which includes the concept of "real" velour, because otherwise crafted goods simply cannot be "Prima", guarantees a certain level of quality. Hallmarks of good quality, which can be better demonstrated than edited, refer to the structure of the felt, i.e. its solidity, evenness, smoothness, softness, then to the kind of finishing in particular, namely the dense, short and evenly shorn cover made of burly high-gloss hair while maintaining full color purity. It is essential that these effects do not suffer when worn. It is, on the contrary, a common experience that real velour undergoes strikingly positive changes under the influence of humidity. The long pile/tuft/nap (not close cropped) which one often sees today is an obvious defect, which is due to unsatisfactory prices. A long cover is shinier and is more opaque than a short one made of the same material (which would be neither shiny nor opaque). But this hair is soft and will soon look like a poodle’s coat and become unsightly. "Prima (Prime)" velour must also be at a certain level what concerns its ingredients. This and other general requirements – such as the fact that the dyeing (dye penetration?) must be flawless so that also black can’t bleed or the like – does no longer belong to our special theme of "silk velour". A more imaginative name for the effect good merchandise can well create does not exist; this term is misleading and should disappear. The frequent "hair velour", too is just an auxiliary term, which in truth distinguishes an imitated effect – scratched velour on hair – from the wool hat with a cover similar to velour and which shall leave the public in the mistaken idea that it was about real velour. Thus scratched velour is everything that is produced out of rabbit hair, rabbit hair/hare hair blend or hare hair just by scratching and shearing without, however, hot water brushing. Such goods have been on the German market only for a short while.

 

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It is recognizable by the tendency of the cover to be dull and to curl, a certain overly firm grip of the felt core and - an outward feature which is not always, but almost always there - by the restriction of the color scale on dark and medium tones. Hare hair, which is used for the fabrication of the "Real(Echter)" velour, is light beige colored, which allows light shades without making the hat more expensive. Tame rabbit which shall produce cheap velour has a grey and dull hue; pastel colors require lighter material which is considerably more expensive, thus they require mark-ups. Hare hair without hot water brushing (which after all increases the price), is rarely used, these goods would come much too close to real Velour. The entire industry has been producing such qualities in all possible combinations for the English market for many years.In everybody’s interest we should, however, try to preserve the clear distinction between "Real(Echter)", brushed, and imitated (scratched) velour.

 

Sometimes the qualities that can be seen in real velour are magnificent. Only those who know the details of the fabrication can appreciate the extraordinary effort hidden in this most noble part of the art of hat making. And when we consider that we owe almost anything, the idea, the working principle and many details of the operation, to anonymous individuals of times bygone the demarcation towards all cheap - in the double sense of the word - imitations also seems to be an act of loyalty to the Masters. "Don’t despise the masters!" - this saying goes with the chapter on velour, about the “Real(Echter)” when they are “Prime(Prima)"

 

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