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Technologische encyklopadie: oder, Alphabetisches handbuch der technologie, der technischen chemie und des machinenwesens K. Karmarch J.G. Cotta, 1836


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Hatter's Art


From the pressure Hatter art referring almost exclusively only on the making of felt hats. Other hats are partly partly from which they are made partly at last as fast does not count because of the ease of manipulation because of the utter diversity of the raw material temporary phenomena and mere attempts hither. They can therefore be here either merely mentioned or used in other articles of this work before So you can all that is necessary about the so-called Basthüte in the article: Bast Bd l S 466 find the straw hats but likewise be treated in the proper place.


As the only material to the felt hats the animal hairs are to be considered on their properties in so far they justify their technical usefulness of the articles in this volume hair S 276 contains the essentials already. Prominences virtue of their structure and of the on-them scale-like prominences they have their proper inclination to ju felting that is located in a separable not without resistance whole to unite. Requirements for this phenomenon are that they are brought as close as possible to each other nud that they lie in various directions. IT seems only the parallel position of the hair prevents felting in the same natural state on the fur of the animal. Regard to the deliberate production of Silzes it is mainly on n the hair very close to push at each other and expose them to the associated mechanical prints thus find that interlocking their peaks and valleys in the corresponding degrees instead. Incidentally, since the imaginary scales on each hair muthmaßlich the tiles similar to overlie one another, therefore only towards the tip clear and uncovered protrude so illuminates the condition that the hair must Felting have a different position as possible if they are to adhere to each other by itself.


Although now herewith given the opportunity is froM hair without further binder to obtain merely by engaging a contiguous area whose strength is be-ing the greater the closer the hairs are at each other to touch in very many points we find on the in consideration of the ease with which this success will occur on the different types of hair a very important for the fabrication of difference. In borstenartigem coarse hair or bristles real hardness and inflexibility of their wech selseitigeo contact is so large obstacles that tHe felts very difficult or impossible done. Just so we can assume that frizzy hair and want like wool over main Felting is less suitable than straight or turned tes Here it is the elasticity of prolong already with atürli chen bends fitted hair which makes it difficult to approach and daö mesh. Plant fibers finally ufw the Syrian milkweed thistle such as shredded and turned into short threads silk waste has been supposed to apply for hat manufacture attempts alone without any favorable result. Since these fibers, the scaly surface is missing: so they give themselves with animal hair mixed never a need Baren durable felt.


In order to serve as material for the Hatters are out already indicated texture of the hair but also other considerations to be observed. Thus, the same those skins which serve as fur hardly quite vulgar commodity find the higher price due to buy the less for the recovery of the hair as worthless summer skins without the so-called basic hair seen above S 277 also apply here. A list of the most excellent fit for the hat manufacture animal hair will make the above-mentioned circumstances even clearer.




Currently, the most common and most frequently used material, the hair of the common hare. THERE are duly treated the nicest easiest if not the most durable felts. In this animal the difference between shy and basic hair bristles occurs which latter is very fine precipitates is found in the summer and only in the colder months to grow back very clearly especially on the back. The best hair is found at the back of the animal, lower the side hair even worse, the abdominal hair and each of the extremities. Hair itself is rare in the trade but regularly the whole skins of which the summer skins are almost completely useless. Only from lesser fur the hair as a whole (unfortirt) is usually applied but after the already mentioned differences in a place of bellows on which it was to hats of various quality needed. Also, it is mixed to medium-fine wares with the hair of other animals what Andean-recovery is occur in the sequence, since the hare hair should now make the best and most common material for felt preparation as the representation of the fabrication in this article is also preferably refer to the same.

Rabbit hair produces very fine hats and low cost. At the most sought-after is still the greater fineness because the hair of the so-called blue or English rabbit whole white but is designed to make white ladies hats by being the only one that this color is purely determine allowed. Such hats when they are quite long hair who has the will or by coating during the making of the felt too comfortable with the hair of the Angora rabbits which otherwise but only provides soft and coarse felt and is processed as her mixed with hare or rabbit hair.


Beaver Hair is one of the most exquisite materials. Hats it can be not so nice and shiny color like those of hare fur but they are more durable, they felt far denser and stronger. Because of the large difference of the coat in summer and winter is just like the very striking the good full skins is there as wanted and in high prices are the animal at all but here become rarer as it may the Hatter does not frequently use. Wherefore now hats made of beaver hair alone almost never manufactured but it is used for beautiful long-haired and clothing or for mixing with the hare hair felt.


Rarity and high price are even more of the otter whose beautiful fine hair like that of the beaver, therefore, no application in the hat manufacture place.


Quite frequently, however, the hair of the muskrat (castor zibethus) from North America for several years used nahmentlich to very long-haired beaver hats in which it is the hair which it comes very close to the fineness and color replaced with advantage. Summer hats for the same with the pleasant natural brownish color are currently very popular rabbit hair felt is covered with it.


The skins of martens Mole Iltis are u the like partly as furs in to high prices and partly not to have in such books as the amount that the speech could be from more than one application of hair in the Hat. The same is true of the hair of Bisamstieres from that of Schupp or Racoon which also own the finer basic hair is already pretty much the actual wool approaches. Kat hair is useful, felts pretty heavy.


Frizzy hair or wool never even delivers the already presented ten reasons fine but sharp and durable hats their production but still comparatively because of the docility of the wool reduce laborious than that of simple hairs. The following types of wool are more or less in front of the Hatter workshops.


The wool should be fine but also elected shortly Therefore lamb and zweischürige summer wool is used most frequently are but never quite fine hats. The same is true of all types of goats hair is even understood when not including the gross long but the fine basic hair. About this legrere its occurrence and its recovery in the common goat you see this page n8 strip after.

Felt made of camel's hair is characterized by its duration as it is very flexible and does not break easily but not by delicacy from although this type of hair is more simple than actually curled.

There were, however, still more useful in the millinery species list of simple and frizzy hair alone use them mostly depends merely on the circum stances eg the temporarily low prices and the like, and is Wherefore except the rule. The latter is true of horse hair which is subjected only rarely in some cases the operation of felting Some hither also related examples concerned the cow and calf hair are the hair products (page 286 of this volume) have already been mentioned.


The Stain


As for the individual, compel to represent the felt work: so is the first and most necessary in the Hare hair the same pickling. One can say that this hair had received general usefulness only since the invention and improvement of the stain. Previously consisted merely of nitric acid stain diluted with water (aqua fortis); currently it is but become composite; also soft the individual Hatter both in respect constituents themselves, as well as the quantitative ratio of their pickling significantly from each other. It typically takes on a pound nitric acid, per four ounces of mercury, 1 to 1 1/2 ounces of corrosive sublimate of mercury (mercury chloride) and up to 2 ounces of white arsenic. The resolution is done in mild, heat and then a liquid which is diluted for use with three parts water. The ratio of the sublimate additive is increased when you felt so-called open or long-haired hats, but on the other hand used more arsenic when you right felten to obtain short-haired felt wishes; because experience has shown that arsenic makes the hair brittle, fragile and therefore shorter. Without arsenic, it is impossible to see, the hat when dyeing a deep shine of the Black granted. The stain and its composition was formerly kept very secret, and her Wherefore the name Secret, secret, settled, she still leads now and then.


It has not been many attempts to modify these stains, and to make them nahmentlich for the health of the workers of less concern; but until now it has been displaced by othing better. Other substances such as burnt lime, caustic potash, chlorine, cream of tartar, nitrate of silver, urine, vinegar, & c have been indeed applied, but have given no satisfactory result. Also above is not yet at peace, whether, and to what degree it is good if the ordinary mercury stain, as is always the case, nitric acid, unbound, ie too little mercury does hold. The free acid attacks the hair sharply, making it brittle, but also facilitates the felts. Some Hatter set the stain, likely to encounter their injurious effect on the hair to even slimy decoctions of plant materials such as the black salsify (symphytum officinale). The orris root to provide good services.


Before applying the stain of the bellows is trimmed (pointed), ie the hair cut with an ordinary pair of scissors at the tips. Since the basic hair is shorter and covered by the lengthen bristle hair, one creates one of the latter through the nozzle about 1/3 of its length away. It is for hat foundations of both his greater strength, as well as excellent due to the fact that it can not turn black, little, and only to vulgar commodity useful. This pruning should be done on the back but with caution so as not to lose any of the finer basic hair.


The stain itself is worn around the head with the help of a round brush; with which it is gradually passed over against the grain, and in all directions. it is seen on the hair is not too wet, and the liquid does not reach quite to the bottom of the coat. After picking up wearing the stain the skins with the hair side are placed against each other, then complained for some time, but finally dried up in dry rooms with own use of artificial heat.


The obvious question is how and what the stain actually works, can be answered quite satisfactorily be only in respect of the latter point. Between raw and of stained hair namely a highly noticeable difference. The latter at the slightest pressure already together, and shows the most decided tendency to felt, while not stained is far less compliant, much stiffer and more elastic. It seems, then, that the stain by dissolving a portion of the hair, it weakens, flexible power and the emergence of the surface favors contained scales.


Except for the hare hair, subjecting Beaver hair if it not long located off the stain; Rabbit skins get rare, wool, but never a stain.

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