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Der Hut - Ciba(Chemical Industries Basel)-Rundschau 31 (1938)


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Peasant couple from around Hanoi (Tonkin) (French Indochina)

Working with hats made of palm leaf fan. The hat shapes for men and women are different.


The Hat




Ciba-Rundschau 31


Basel. November 1938


The hat


Content: The headdress at the primitive peoples by Dr. A. G. Petitpierre page 1126


On the cultural history of the hat by Dr. A. G. Petitpierre page 1131


Hat factory and hat manufacturing by Dr. A. G. Petitpierre page 1144


The modern technique of hat manufacturing and dyeing of W.Thommen page 1152


Categories: Notes on the topic page 1157


Reproduction, even partial, as well as excess Chaffing, are permitted only with the permission of the editorial staff of the Ciba Rundschau

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This is the most interesting section of the book. Ciba (Chemical Industries Basel) was one of the major producers of Coal Tar Dyes used for hat felt (fur and wool) and was / is a giant of the Chemical industry.


"The Chemical Industry"






Photograph: Contemporary Hat Dyeing Machine.


To the Modern Technique of Hat Manufacturing - Dyeing Works


The raw materials used in the felt hat industry, wool on the one hand, and hair on the other hand, require different working methods, if also the finished products look pretty much the same. Hair is significantly more sensitive to the work processes necessary for the hat factory and must be treated accordingly more carefully and more gentle. But to hold is that the are the same when editing these difficulties occurring two raw materials.


Manufacture and dyeing of wool hat


It handles mainly Austral, Cape and Montevideo to go. Each hat manufacturer develops its own working methods and relies in particular, concerning the wool blends to use, on his personal experience. This quality is awarded to the finished product, its particular reputation.


The discharge also and the carbonization of wool are with the advantage of the loose material carried out. Many hat factories to buy the wool but only entpecht and carbonize the pillar after the bump. This procedure is certainly cheaper, but difficulties are when dyeing often, when not the necessary precautions are taken. The carbonization of wool by means of sulfuric acid could be improved substantially through the application of network resources. The wetting agent facilitate the penetration of acidity in goods, whereby comes a uniform effect of acid and a stains in the history of the dyeing is prevented. As a wetting agent in the carbonization process, the Invadin C of the society of chemical industry in Basel in practice has proven successful.


The colour of the hat is running either in Labraz or in the pillar. It can apply all feasible methods, if they are suitably carried out. Labraze, i.e. not ready milled pillar, will turnout more easily, but require a very careful selection of dye, which only shear real products that resist the necessary Nachwalke, come into question. On the other hand,is used to the. Color well egalisierende the finished felted pillar possible as possible and at the same time easy colouring through dyes.




Photography: Modern Rotor Dyeing Machine made of acid resistant resin.


A fairly wide range of dyeing available is the hat Dyer. The Färberad (cf. page 1147) has the first part to allow a large production, in contrast to more modern systems like Obermaier, Casse, etc. With equipment from the. Type Obermaier with reversible fleet circulation is handled the material when compared to the wheel more gently, resulting in reduced losses. After all, it is also possible to get good re-sultate, avoiding to violent fall of the pillar on the Färberad and this. Dyeing according to who tumbled-the. The staining procedure that is according to quality and weight of Stumpens, i.e.after, whether it is heavily milled men's hats or to light women's hats. It can be set up as a result, no hard and fast rule for the dyeing, the colourist has become after the goods set and therefore he must also the manufacturing process know, in particular the dye-related walking closely in the binding.


The selection of the colours used for the dyeing of the hat is quite large. The Kiton -and Kitonecht - are of good Egali sierfähigkeit

dyes, while the Neolanfarbstoffe are suitable especially for dyeing carbonized Stum-pen and for this purpose due their levelling - and Durchfärbeeigenschaf-ten, as well as their high light fastness success-rich were introduced.


Manufacture and Dyeing of Fur Felt Hat


The raw material is the hair of the rabbits and rabbit. As the wool hat, the choice of theraw material is also an experience thing that requires a thorough knowledge ofmanufacturing and of article. What color the methods is concerned, they are as variedas in the dyeing of wool hat, and here, too, each method has its advantages.


Today used devices include those from the most primitive to the most modern design. Even more so than the wool hat the colourist is forced here, its colour wise to adjust the quality and resistance of the Stumpens, especially if cheap goods for processing,where the felt largely must be spared, when otherwise an excessive loss of materialshould be avoided.




Most apparatus of open type, i.e. for boilers, skids, barges, used with and without agitator, Dyer grooves, with fleet movement by propeller, etc., the pillar be apparatuses according to the quality of the goods more or less affected. A specialdyeing danger is that the felt from becoming loose, therefore a light to walk must follow the dye, which the pillar is brought back to the original length.


The apparatus, where the fleet movement is worried by a pump, tagged - provide aperfect Deying with utmost protection of felt: it can dye such as Mr Hat pillar, without that it would be necessary to walk again after dyeing.


Also on the areas of the hair Hat dyeing the Neolan used dyes off greatly, because they are unique in different loading drawings: they rub through quickly, and used in mixing tones

Brands are characterized by date they inflate evenly and at the same time.


Hat coloring to achieve good égale dyes, was taken to the various tools. It was noted that real wetting agent in the dyeing of the hat are not suitable because they make the felt easily wettable and volatile against the influences of the weather. In addition,this levelling agent may not prevent the felts.


Extensive tests with Invadin D, that is not a wetting agent and does not affect the felts,showed that this product sizing and dyeing through provides a very good service.Used as Invadin D, additional to the dye bath 3% relate to the weight of the wool or hair felt.


Cloth Real Red, Cloth Real brilliant Red 2B, Cloth Real Brilliant Red 4BN


are the most appropriate dye stuffs for pure, full red with excellent performance against sea water.




Wave for the Practice


Colorful etching process of Indigo dyes


The colored discharges of indigoid dyes, especially those using real dyes was previously always associated with considerable difficulties. The etching with vat dyes on the basis of a hydrosulfite leuco tropätze succeeded only with anthraquinoid dyes, and even here there were only a few who resisted entirely as a stained effects of energetic reducing action of the etchant. In addition, this series lacked a fiery red illustrating an integrating element of the illumination method. Much less the very lively, insoluble azo dyes for colored effects were suitable with the above etch because it, which is also the type of application is, succumbed to the energetic reduction effect. It has been found that the etching of indigoid dyes, even without the use of hydrosulfite only by application of potash in combi nation with Ätzsalz Ciba W succeeds, the colorful illumination especially with representatives of the group of the insoluble azo dyes. However, this requires certain illumination methods, and it turned out that the fact that a component, naphthol, the Ätzfarbe Inkor-porated, the opportunity was given after the etching of funds - in the usual way by attenuating the Ätzfarbe printed goods - by the naphthol located on the Ätzstellen. Coupling with an appropriate diazo solution to convert in the pigment. It will naturally select naphthols with which various color effects can be achieved using one and the same-diazo solution. Steaming the intensity of the stained effects is not reduced because the naphthol within the thickening barely sublimated.





Following etching color is stated as an example:


30 g Cibanaphtol

30 g sodium hydroxide 36° be.

50 g of alcohol

150 g water

450 g neutral starch British rubber thickening

150 g etching salt Ciba W

140 g potash

Total: 1000 g


where in a specific case the Cibanaphtol of RTO apart from Cibanaphtol RF, in addition to red orange gives rise in application of Orange salt Ciba II as a developer. Coupierenof etching color with Ciba-naphtol RTO enters about 1: 3 in addition to red. Rosa. Thepassage in the development bath is carried out after steaming in one. Roller box withattached air gear and detachable box, which initially contains a bad 3 g hydrochloric acid per litre, at 40 ° C and then a boiling bath 10 CC caustic 36° be. per litre.


A yellow is not available in the above featured combination. But you can fix thisdeficiency as a result to apply an etching color of the following composition:


400 g neutral starch gum tragacanth thickening

150 g etching salt Ciba W

150 g potash

70 g glycerol

80 g Hydrosulfite R conc. Ciba

150 g Cibanongelb GC double dough

Total: 1000 g


where however the reduction of disperse dye Hydrosulfite R conc. Ciba must be addedin small quantities. In this way, a lot of interesting and above all very real effects canbe achieved, as they are not possible after another procedure in same liveliness. Prof.Dr. R. H





(This is Ciba advertisement for Coal Tar Dyes that would used to dye Fur and Wool felt hoods.)


Dyeing of decorative items:


Light-resistant beige shades with Chlorantinlichtgelb 2RLL, Chlorantinlichtorange T4RLL, Chlorantinlichtblau GLL (Coal Tar Dyes)


Deep shades of brown with Chlorantinlichtgelb RL, Chlorantinlichtrot 6 BLL, Chlorantinlichtblau 3 GLL, or Chlorantinlichtgelb 2 RLL, Chlorantinlichtbraun BRLL, Chlorantinlichtblau GLL (Coal Tar Dyes)


Scarlet tones with Chlorantinlichtorange T4RLL, Chlorantinlichtscharlach BNLL (Coal Tar Dyes)


Bordeaux nuances with Chlorantinlichtrot 6 BLL, Chlorantinlichtrubin RNLL, Chlorantinlichtblau GLL or 3 GLL (Coal Tary Dyes)

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