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Museo dell’Arte del Cappello di Ghiffa, March 14, 2017

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This is a visual tour of the Museo dell’Arte del Cappello di Ghiffa which I visited March 14th 2017. I took over 300 photos so not sure when this will end. I would like thank my friend Daniele for making the long drive to Ghiffa from Verona. Also would like to thank Ms. Elena Poletti (Museum Curator) who graciously opened the museum for our visit (the museum is closed during the winter months) and answered our questions. The weather was perfect and Lake Maggiore was beyond magnificent (deserves its on thread). The workers at Panizza definitely had an amazing visual back drop.

Click On Photos To Expand!

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The original G. Panizza & C. Hat Factory building is on the left and the later factory location on the right. The Museo dell’Arte del Cappello di Ghiffa is located in the original factory building. The next series of photos are exterior photos of the buildings.

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The interior tour of the museum.

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The first section of the museum is dedicated to the history of G. Panizza & C. Hat Factory.

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(1) Panizza Giovanni & C. founded April 25, 1881

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Continued.

 

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GIOVANNI PANIZZA (Founder)

 

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NATALE GAMBA (Important Owner)

 

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EVENTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL OCCURRED AT BIRTH CENTENARY HAT FACTORY PANIZZA BACKGROUND

1817 BIRTH HAT FACTORY ALBERTINI - INTRA.

1845 BORN A CHIAVAZZA (Biella): GIOVANNI PANIZZA.

1876 GIOVANNI PANIZZA JOINS IN HAT FACTORY RIGHETTI DI GHIFFA (x 3 years)

1879 GIOVANNI PANIZZA BACK TO HOW HAT FACTORY ALBERTINI FOREMAN.

 

25/04/1881 GIOVANNI PANIZZA founded G.PANIZZA & C. with partner ANTONIO FERRI.

07/05/1887 You socio ANTONIO FERRI yields to GIOVANNI PANIZZA 50%

1893 ANTONIO FERRI GIOVANNI PANIZZA yield to 100% or remains employed.

 

26/11/1900 Closes the FERRI, CIELO & C., hat factory here inafter to F. lli RIGHETTI.

Where the "White" department is transferred is purchased from Panizza (1901).

 

Dic./1905

PIETRO RESTELLINI withdraws from Soc. PANIZZA and opens its own hat factory in Rovereto,

but died on 04.09.1905. The Company remains: GIOVANNI PANIZZA with 50% of the capital,

NATALE GAMBA 25%, 25% ANTONIO GIUSTI. GIOVANNI PANIZZA moved to Chiavazza and leaves the

running of the plant temporarily to die members, but from 1 January 1901 had been hired his

nephew LUIGI PANIZZA with 1/5 of the share capital.

 

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11/08/1907 died on socio ANTONIO GIUSTI replaces widow In LUIGIA FRANCIOLI that recede two years later.

05/02/1909 The Company remains consolidated in the three surviving members: GIOVANNI PANIZZA,

NATALE GAMBA and LUIGI PANIZZA.

18/07/1914 Death of founder GIOVANNI PANIZZA to Chiavazza - birthplace.

30/12/1914 Remain 50% partners: LUIGI PANIZZA and NATALE GAMBA.

 

Febr. 11/1932 dr. ANTONIO GAMBA fresh out of college he joined PANIZZA for the internship. The rag.

GIOVANNI PANIZZA alongside him LUIGI uncle with 1/5 of the membership fee.

1933/1934 is built the new wing of the factory in place of fabrication.

10/05/1936 died on Coma. NATALE GAMBA and take over the children dr. ANTONIO and Ing. FEDERICO equally.

31/12/1937 company is consolidated in:

LUIGI PANIZZA 8/20

GIOVANNI PANIZZA 2/20 5/20

FEDERICO GAMBA 5/20

ANTONIO GAMBA 5/20

 

10/02/1954 Dies Cav. LUIGI PANIZZA inherits 40% of the shares Rag. GIOVANNI PANIZZA 5% each of the two

sisters Carla Clotilde and while there remain te 50% remains divided in equal parts between Dr. Antonio and

ing. FEDERICO GAMBA.

30/04/1957 The PANIZZA accords with HAT American CORPORATION to manufacture under license of DOBBS and KNOX hats.

1959 Closes hat factory ALBERTINI and the trade-mark was bought by Panizza. (16 March 1960).

 

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1964 Eng. GAMBA disagree for technical choices inherent in the processing, it is put in the minority from the other two

members rag.PANIZZA and dr. GAMBA and put in a position to resign.

21/04/1964 The Company PANIZZA prohibited it consists of: rag.PANIZZA President Ms MARIA CLOTILDE PANIZZA Cozzi, Director

dr. ANTONIO GAMBA Managing Director, Ms MARIA LAURA FERRARI GAMBA Director. The actions of Eng. GAMBA are divided in proportion

to the shares already held and, therefore, the GAMBA group remains with 33.33% and 66.66% with PANIZZA.

17/12/1964 Death of the President rag. GIOVANNI PANIZZA.

 

12/01/1965 Mrs. MARIA ChoTILDE PANIZZA Cozzi remains the owner of 2/3 of the so-cial capital.

02/09/1965 Dr., ANTONIO GAMBA presented his resignation to the Board.

04/03/1965 Appointed President Ms MARIA CLOTILDE PANIZZA Cozzi and administrators: the avv.CARLO BASKET BAGAT,

and dr. LIVIO ZACCHERA, Mill Manager remains the dr. ANTONIO GAMBA.

20/12/1965 Dr. ANTONIO GAMBA renunciation of collaboration with hat factory, administrators are reduced to two and

the actions of the dr. GAMBA pass to HANDELSBANK Zurich (hat factory Walker Straubing).

 

19/12/1970 The PANIZZA enters Controlled Administration regime

09/01/1971 Appointed new Board of Directors Sig. PIERO CERETTI President, (bound to dr. Gamba), and counselors avv.

MARCELO GUIDO and dr. ANGELO MARIA FRIGERIO

08/01/1972 Appointed president of Panizza A. NEGRA, ANTONIO GAMBA CEO, PEIRO CERETTI Adviser

12/01/1981 Panizza is overwhelmed by the crisis in the sector and closes production in Ghiffa.

 

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G. Panizza & C. Employees, 1907

 

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G. Panizza & C. Factory 1915

 

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(2) Producing hats and felts for men has been the tradition of the High Verbano. In this work we have news since the end of 1700.

 

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Society of Hats - White Black, 120 Year Anniversary, INTRA

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Continued.

 

Click on Photos to Expand!

 

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G. Panizza & C. , Time Clock, Late workers fine was given to charity.

 

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G. Panizza & C. 1925

 

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G. Panizza & C. 1934

 

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Fedrico Gamba Engineer 1930 - 1963, Ginetto Bovio C , Giulo Gariboldi Felt Technician, Medellin (Columbia?) - 1953

 

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Giovanni Panizza Engineer, Director 1930 - 1964

 

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Adreano Negra, Finance, 1972 - 1980

 

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G. Panizza & C. 1967

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Continued.

 

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G. Panizza & C. 1976

 

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Antonio Gamba Engineer, Director

 

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Antonio Gamba Engineer, Director, 1908 - 1990, Panizza 1930 - 1981

 

Industry Verbanesi

 

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E. Albertini & C. INTRA Hat Factory

 

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E. Albertini & C. INTRA Hat Factory

 

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Valenza Hat Factory INTRA

 

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Continued.

 

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I short interlude of Italian Hat Company Posters

 

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Vanzina Pavia

 

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G. B. Borsalino Fu Lazzaro & C.

 

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G. B. Borsalino Fu Lazzaro & C.

 

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Borsalino G. & F.Llo

 

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Borsalino G. & F.Llo

 

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Borsalino G. & F.Llo

 

Now back to production!

 

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(3) The felt is soft to the touch, but it is in the same time very resistant to the interweaving of the fibers that compose it.

 

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(4) Felt is a non-woven fabric that is formed by permeate some animal fibers to form a tight weave inextricable.

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Continued.

 

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(5) The felt has the advantage that it can easily be formed when treated with steam. There is another equally resilient material able to provide a form so well shaped and free of seams which the hat.

 

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(6) During the felting, the fibers are intertwined in every direction. The felt obtained can not therefore be torn, on the contrary of forbidden woven with warp and weft.

 

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(7) The felting was already known even before you used the loom for weaving.

 

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(8) The felt can be obtained from the wool of the (is more ancient origin) or with fur, which gives a finer and softer product.

 

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(9) The first order of fur felt remembered by history is to Beaver. Figure led by Charles VII in a painting made in 1450 by Jean Fouquet.

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Continued.

 

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(10) Felt is valuable because it can be considered a reconstituted fur without the natural support of the skin.

 

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(11) The wool fibers, long and wavy, possess a particular structure that leads them to adhere naturally through their scales. With the simple action of pressure and oscillation carried out in the presence of hot water and steam.

 

(12)In the wool felting there is a considerable reduction in thickness in-l'assieme of the product

 

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Continued.

 

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(13) The surfaces of the fur fibers appear under the microscope covered scales.

 

(14) In the process of felting the closure of the tissue it is facilitated by a substance, called "keratin" contained in the animal fibers.

 

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(15) The scales that cover the fur fibers produce the advancement in the mass, while prevent their retraction, when they are pushed in the opposite direction.

 

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Continued.

 

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(17) Each fiber tends to move forward between the interstices of the hairy mass, hooking up with the tail curled other hairs, so as to form an increasingly tight tangle.

 

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(18) The felt and 'consists of a myriad individual animal fibers that have the property to intertwine with each other if properly manipulated in the presence of hot water.

 

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(19) It said the end of fur felt that obtained with fibers beaver, hare and wild or domestic rabbit.

 

(20) The felt can be achieved only with the fibers of those animals which have the required properties for felting.

 

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(21) The hare and rabbit hair, unlike those of beaver and wool, are chemically treated with "secretatura" process to enhance the natural felting power.

 

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Continued.

 

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(23) Apostle James, Patron Saint of Hatters

 

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Workers Societies and Unions, Diplomas, Assorted Labor Documents

 

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Continued.

 

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(22) Corporation of Hatters, Master of the Art, 1400

 

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(24) The hair, prepared by specialized companies (called "couperie"), was supplied ready to blow, divided into bags for quality and natural color. (Side Note: Panizza purchased ready to blown fur.)

 

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(25) On the skin of the animals fur, low and soft, it is mixed with the more hard and rigid (giarro), to be eliminated. Department of blowing Panizza: mixer, blow molding and sleeping boxes, already purified by giarro, ready to strike up.

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Continued.

 

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(27) The basting is inspected to check, in transparency, the regularity of the hair deposit on the cone which is equivalent to the regularity of the final thickness of the hat.

 

(28) A particular coat weight is withdrawn from the casing and lying on the carpet of the introducer imbastitrice machine.

 

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(31) With the help of boiling water the rollers of the machine sodatrice damage to the roll of canvas, which with-holding basting, the pulses required to obtain the first phase of felting with the reduction in size of the felts.

 

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Continued.

 

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(32) The cone covered by the hair is taken from the machine and imbastitrice reversed: the basting is made to gently fall into a cloth to be wound and then centrifuged.

 

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(32) The cone covered by the hair is taken from the machine and imbastitrice reversed: the basting is made to gently fall into a cloth to be wound and then centrifuged.

 

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(33) The tacking of the surface is consistent yield starting from the delicate work of rassodatura performed by machines with oscillating plates.

 

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Continued.

 

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(34) Group of "CAUSTICIZING" roller machines. The tacks are rolled into sheets and works. you either side and head. We always get a uniform felting. It follows a further control.

 

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(35) Scrociatura: manual operation performed at each step to the fulling. Used to prevent that remains the folding imprint on the flattened felt.

 

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(36) In fulling hot water and acidulated falling rain helps the penetration of the hairs in the mass felt in training.

 

(37) Of "fulling" Groups oscillating rollers. I felt cones are "scrociati" at each step.

 

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Continued.

 

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(39) Department "dyeing" to Panizza. In relation to the amount of felts available for each color bath, there were three different sizes of dyeing equipment.

 

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(40) After the dyeing operation the rolettinisti (workers who work on machines rolettine calls) complete the "closure" of the felt bells. In the boiling dye bath to the felt swollen and this serves to give the optimum felting.

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Click On Photos to Expand!

 

Display case with instruments / tools and samples used by the Master Dyer / Dye Department.

 

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The bottom of the case is devoted to mechanized fur preparation with stages of felt hood to capeline and finished hat.

 

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Continued.

 

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Back to the numbered Hat Production process. Part 3 stopped at number 40

 

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41. Start of shredding felt felt with dome enlargement. The tapered cone is rounded off in the presence of very steam that allows the sliding of the fibers.

 

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42. Unreadable.

 

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Back to the numbered Hat Production process. Part 3 stopped at number 40

 

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41. Start of shredding felt felt with dome enlargement. The tapered cone is rounded off in the presence of very steam that allows the sliding of the fibers.

 

den circles.

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Continued.

 

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43. The shape is given to the felt first with the help of boiling water, then, after drying, with steam.

 

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44. The felt at this point is out with very fine sandpaper, with this operation the felt is "clean-shaven" from the "Giarro"..

 

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45. One side of the "Black" department at Panizza. Planing, pressing and circling. "Circling" is the shaping of the brim by ironing felt on shaped woo

 

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Continued.

 

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46. The "underside" of felt cancels the internal tension in the brim after the information operation.

 

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Continued.

 

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Velour Finishes

 

Automatic Hot Wet Brushing Machine: This brushing takes place during felting. This process was originally done manually. Supposedly the automated process never matched the manual process but it's apparent that some manual brushing took place once the process was automated. You can't have Real Velour without this Hot Wet Brushing taking place!

 

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47. At a speed of 3000 rpm, the wheels of the machine "cardinatrice", covered with shark skin, dissolve the ligature felt hair on the surface.

 

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