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NOVÝ JIČÍN - Town of Chimneys, September 7 - 29, 2019


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This is the opening of the exhibition "NOVÝ JIČÍN - Town of Chimneys".  There was a lot of interesting information on the hat companies.  Also an early 1940s film from JHS that I will try to get a copy of the video.

NOVÝ JIČÍN - Town of Chimneys, September 7 - 29, 2019, Radek Polách
Realization: Municipal Cultural Center Nový Jičín, contributory organization Museum of Nový Jičín, contributory organization State District Archive Nový Jičín.


NOVÝ JIČÍN - Town of Chimneys


We reached the hill where our view of Nový Jičín is painted, and Mr. Machar quite reasonably said: "That's strange. Wherever you see a city of many chimneys with industry, you always hear: German city." Karel Dostál-Lutinov: How was J. S. Machar in Nov. Jicin. Časopis Život, volume 1902, pp. 261-262.

The end of the 18th century brought new changes for the whole of Europe. In the south of the continent, the Ottoman Empire was finally pushed through by the Austrian and Russian armies, the independence movement was born in Italy, the bloody revolution was raging in France, and Napoleon Bonaparte was on the scene. In addition, the English Channel crossed the industrial revolution from England and began to advance through continental Europe. Conditions for the growth of economic benefit were also prepared for the city in the northeastern corner of the country of Moravia, one of the countries of the Czech Crown, which in German called Neutitschein, Czech Novy Jicin. In individual European manufactories there was a gradual increase in production in the second half of the 18th century. Manual work was replaced by the use of machinery and equipment The textile industry, which used not only the possibility of putting the steam engine into operation, but also the development of road and later rail transport, was a significant impulse. Dr. Willczek's oldest cloth factory existed in Nový Jičín before 1800, when Johann Vinzenz Beinhauer became its new owner. In 1814, August Ferdinand Dapper became another trainer, who in 1832 was the first in the city to replace the oxen drive of textile machinery in his factory with a steam engine. The machine came from the Brno company Luk & Co. Augustin Diipper became the founder of industrial factory production in Nový Jičín. The Bůckel family came to this developing city environment, which subsequently made a major transformation of the textile manufacturer into a world-renowned hat and headwear manufacturing center.

At the end of the 19th century, there were many factories in the city producing various commodities, the largest of which were textile and hat factories. In the interwar period there were state tobacco factory, automobile factory (GNOM), metal and gas meter factories (Gafa, Wondra u. Comp.), Hatter factories (Brüder Böhm, J. Hückel´s Söhne, Anton Peschel), car factories (M. Walter , J. Jurek, B. Baar), wine factory (Liewehr's Reach, Justin Lonsky nud Sohn, Bernhard Mank, E Schimitschek), cloth factory (Johann Czeiczner, Justin Czeike nud Reach, Franz Gerzabek, Johann Nepomuk Preisenhammer, Max Preisenhamer Franz Jakob Weiss Reaches), Harmony and Scraper Factory (Johann Neusser), Agricultural Machinery Factory (Karl Fláckel, Neutitscheiner Fabrik Landwirtschaftl. Maschinen, Eisengiesserei A.-G.), Lamp Factory (Josef Rotter), Factory furniture (Ferdinand Rattei, Wilhelm Zirps, Otto Stahr), engine factory (Johann Halla). Other important employers included the Kudielka & Rosmanith brewery in Loučka and the United Spirits Factory in Šenov. An integral part of the city's atmosphere was the town's steam mill and a number of small factories, printers and smaller establishments, all of which reduced the chimney resistance to their needs. A chimney is considered to be a vertical structure or part thereof. which serves as a flue gas outlet from the furnace. Already in the 15th century it appeared on buildings in a form exceeding the roof itself, which was able to remove smoke completely outside the object The chimney was usually connected to stoves, fireplaces, furnaces or boilers. There were several hundred of these buildings in Nový Jičín. The largest ones have appeared in the factory grounds and are still a silent symbol of the industrial revolution and the economic boom of the city in the past. For the second half of the 20th century apartments typical large production facilities of national enterprises Antopal. 1Carnola, Strojtex, TONAK. expanded perlite plant and stktni tobacco factory. Today, in the 21st century, their successors are the joint-stock company TONAK. "[anon Systems Autopal s.r4: A. and Varroc Lighting Systems, s. r

NOVÝ JIČÍN - Town of Chimneys Today


Opening of exhibition.


Anton Peschel Neutitschein


The entrepreneurial successes of Johann Hückel's Söhne promptly prompted the owner of a steam mill in Šenov near Nový Jičín in 1870, Anton Peschel, to set up his own hat factory. On July 2, 1870, he installed a steam engine into the production process, similar to what Johann Hůckeťs Sóhne did a few years ago. Anton Peschel later became another major hat brand and on 1 January 1912 was registered as a public company. The owner Luis Peschel transferred the ownership rights to her sons Karel and Josef Peschel. At the end of the First World War, the company employed 500 employees, and this number increased to 1,000 workers by 1938. Anton Peschel's hat factory was world-renowned for producing smooth and velor men's hats, women's hats, and work on its semi-finished products, supplying a number of small traders - hatters. In 1928, the third son of the founder Anton Ernst Peschel joined the company. In the interwar period, Ing. Friedrich Sternbach. His wife was a company companion since 1934, but without the right of representation and signature. The Hückel and Peschel families were connected in 1941 when Karl Ernst Hückel married Kathe Peschel in Nový Jičín. Johann Franz Hůckel's son married Anton Peschel's daughter. After World War II and the nationalization of the hat factory in Nový Jičín, the company was briefly incorporated into the national company TONA / C. Subsequently, the whole area was taken over by the Ministry of Defense, which established military warehouses here. They existed here until the 1990s, when all the buildings of the former millennium Peschel factory were abandoned. In 2007, the demolition of the former hat factory Anton Peschel -i began despite the efforts of conservationists to declare it a real cultural monument. The village of Šenov u Nového Jičína eventually reached its original development with the developers of the TESCO hyperrnarket.

Anton Peschel Neutitschein Receipt, October 6, 1925


Anton Peschel Neutitschein Correspondence, July 27, 1927


Anton Peschel Neutitschein Post Cards



Demolition of Anton Peschel Neutitschein Factory, 2011.  The factory switched to textile manufacturing post WWII.  A retail shopping complex was built on the site post demolition.











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Brüder Böhm Neutitschein


In the second half of the 19th century, the focus of hat production in the town of Nový Jičin meant the establishment of another New-Jeans hat company in the early twentieth century. In 1906, the Schlesinger brothers started the construction of the hat factory in Nový Jičín, and the same year the construction of the Globus factory in Nový Jičín started. It was the future millinery production facility, supported by a citizen of Nový Jičín, Karl G. Kolb, with the participation of Viktor Böhm. At that time, Viktor Böhm was a partner in the Brothers Bdhm Company, founded in 1848 in Vienna by Bernhard and Nathalie Böhm. Since 1880 it was a public company that in 1884 built a subsidiary plant in Prague with 1,800 employees. Already in 1912 Moriz Schlesinger together with Viktor Běhm established the company Böhm and Schlesinger, which produced hat semi-finished products and hats. However, disputes and misunderstandings about patents and capital injected soon arose between the two partners, which led to the withdrawal of Moriz Schlesinger from the company. On 2 November 1916, the company was dissolved and entered into liquidation. Moriz Schlesinger turned his attention to the nearby Wallachian. Meanwhile In Nový Jičina, the originally Viennese brand Brüder Böhm started to operate. The upper factories of Nový Jičina added to Suvorovova Street were adapted for the production of semi-finished hat-makers, the lower plant on today's Lužická Street operated a hair cutting room and finished the hat products. In 1922, the Nový Jičín plant became independent and independent of the Vienna and Prague branches. Especially guilty products were unrivaled worldwide and the company exported them from 2/3 to the whole world, especially to the USA. Australia and New Zealand. In 1936 the company had its consignment warehouses in France and the USA. In 1938, 1729 workers were employed in the Novy Jicin factories of Brüder Böhm and another 66 worked in the household to cut and sort the hair. Goods were sold in Czechoslovakia through one representative and four passengers, for markets abroad were available from 32 to 45 representatives. In September 1938, the National Council of Czechoslovakia negotiated the takeover of the Jewish company Brüder Böhm by the Czech company Bata, but negotiations were due to the event at the end of the month ended. On October 10, 1938, the factory fell to the Brüder Böhm of the German Empire, and on November 12, 1938, Antonín Czerný of Nový Jičín, the current factory director, was appointed Chief Commissioner.

In 1941, the Johann Hückel´s Söhne company jointly decided to buy the Brüder Böhm factory, which became the Jewish property of the state in 1938. In total, they paid a market price of 7.7 million denominations. The official takeover of the factory premises took place on 1 July 1941 and former Chief Commissioner Antonín Czemý was retained in the position of plant director. After 1945, as part of nationalization, the factory on Suvorovova Street was incorporated into the national enterprise "MUK" and became part of the national enterprise LODENA or KARHOLA in 1958. Weaving mills were built here in 1960 and later also dyeing and spinning shops. company until the early 90s of the 20th century The lower plant of Lužická Street was later part of the national company Autopal, today it is part of a multinational corporation under the name Hanon Systems Autopal S.R.0..

Brüder Böhm Neutitschein


Brüder Böhm Stiff Felt


Brüder Böhm Advert Cards, Czech and German languages.


Brüder Böhm Neutitschein Calendar Cards in Czech language.



Brüder Böhm NeutitscheinEnvelope, January 10, 1935


Brüder Böhm Neutitschein Quality Hats and Felt Sample Card.  I was very excited to see this Felt Sample Card.  Hopefully I can see the contents one day.  This is the type of production information that is rarely seen.




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Johann Hückel´s Söhne Neutitschein


The beginning of industrial hat production in Central Europe can be found in the town of Nový Jičín. Here in 1799 he was admitted to missions. trulio guild Fulnek hatter Johann Nepomuk Huckel and soon after his brother Augustin Huckel. After the merger of their workshops by Augustine's son Johann Hückel, the workshop in 1865 on today's Dolnobranská Street was the first hat mill in the whole of Austria to manufacture a steam engine. This year is considered the beginning of industrial hat production in our countries. Two years later, the construction of a new large hat factory on the outskirts of the city, which in 1867 already employed 300 workers. On January 1, 1868, Johann Hückel's Sóhne was founded. The Nový Jičín company at the end of the 19th century dominated the overseas markets and its products were world famous. Johann  Hückel's Sóhne from Nový Jičín and P. & C. Habig from Vienna were Austrian-Hungarian hatter companies, whose production and quality exceeded all competition. Johann  Hückel's Sóhne, however, has survived the times of war without any detriment by parts of its size and self - sufficiency. At the end of the 1930s, the company employed some 3,000 workers, masters and officials. With its 48,000 m2, the factory in Nový Jičín was one of the largest millinery in the world. The production had at its disposal a thousand different machines that powered four steam boilers and a 1600 kW turbine with a daily consumption of two to three wagons of coal. The production of the company Johann  Hückel's Sóhne was mainly men's felt velour hats in exclusive design, especially in the qualities of Platinum and Superior Velour, as well as light hats of the quality Plume with hair Duret rauh. Ratina-quality products with goosebumps were also popular. In women's rust, these were more expensive products such as Rival, Sigma and Alpha or cheaper Corall quality products.

Rival, Sigma and Alpha or cheaper Corall products. In 1922, in addition to its older branch in Vienna, Johann  Hückel's Sóhne established a branch plant in Silesian Racibórz (then Germany) and a year later in 1923 another plant in Silesian Skocov (then Poland). The global economic crisis, which began with the fall on the US stock exchange in 1929, caused Hückel a partial loss of the overseas markets and the associated reduction in production and staff. Work hours were also reduced to 40 hours per week (only one shift was worked). Nevertheless, the capital accounts of the four shareholders of Johann Hückel's Sóhne as of January 1, 1932 amounted to almost CZK 79 million. Johann  Hückel's Sóhne experienced two major economic booms in 1918-1938. The second at the end of the thirties stopped the Second World War. In 1945 the factory was nationalized and the national company TONAK was established.

Johann Hückel's Sóhne Ratina



Tonak 1945 - 1989


The end of the Second World War brought not only a new composition of the management of the hat factory in Nový Jičiná, but also new intentions connected with the renewed Czechoslovak Republic. The October decree of the President of the Czechoslovak Republic, Edvard Beneš, meant the merger of three Nový Jičín hatter companies into one, including the Janyška factory in Walachia. On May 27, 1946, the National Administration of the Johann  Hückel's Sóhne factory, a hat factory, requested that the company be deleted from the Commercial Register of the Regional Court in Nový Jičín. The change was to be made in connection with the presidential decree with the assets to the company: Hat factories, national enterprise. As of June 4, 1946, the erasure was carried out by Johann Hfickens Schhnetak officially ceased to exist. After the takeover of power in Czechoslovakia in February 1948 by the Communist Party headed by Klement Gottwald, the hatter's factories were linked to a dozen smaller factories in Bohemia and Moravia under the Act on Further Nationalization. Thus, a total of 24 plants were incorporated into the TONAK company. In 1949, the national hat production company Otavan, based in Katowice, was established. All factories in the Czech Republic were assigned to him from the national company TONAK. The race in Nový Jičín was named TONAK 1, the race in Valašské Meziria TONAK 2 and the Prague race was named TONAK 3. In NovýJičín, the individual races were also numbered. By these changes, the TONAK factory in Nový Jičín became the main pillar of the production of felt hats throughout Czechoslovakia. The national company TONAK has taken care of the training of new employees from the very beginning. After the war and the expulsion of the German population, there were very few specialists left in Nový Jičín and the management had to use the professional capacities of the former Czech factory Janyška in Valašské Menne. workers. In 1963, it grew into a corporate technical school of hat-making technology, which was led by the then-skilled employees of the hat factory.

Significant changes occurred in 1967. At that time, the reconstruction of the entire hat shop in Nový Jičín began. In the course of this, the factory was looked at by the Minister of Industry and Trade Božena Machačová-Dostálová, who supported further development of hat production. In 1969 the hat factory in Nový Jičín processed 19 million animal skins a year, with only one million being imported. Almost 74,510 production at that time was intended for export to know more than fifty countries around the world. During the normalization period, TONAK has been relatively stable during the normalization period. when production and employment made the hat factory one of the most important economic elements of the whole Nový Jičín region. However, this era brought with it a number of other factors, which meant particularly paralyzing direct contacts with the new fashion guilty of Western European countries. The main component of sales were still mass-produced hat products for the countries of the socialist sector. Further changes occurred after 1989.

Tonak 1989 - Present


The “Velvet Revolution” in 1989 meant not only major changes in the political organization of Czechoslovakia and the end of the communist government, but also new challenges for doing business in the public and private sectors. On December 31, 1990, TONAK «became a joint-stock company, with 40% of the hatter's property being the first to blame for coupon privatization. The dynamic development of the 1990s in the form of geopolitical and ownership changes influenced the economic results of the transformed TONAK company. Debt burden from the priority markets of the country of the former trade organization RVHP, associating socialist states of the Soviet bloc and the former Soviet Union, caused sales difficulties and overall stagnation of trade and production. Stabilization occurred only after 1996, when the balance of trade was increased and the operating results stabilized and a gradual increase in sales occurred. Japan, Canada, Germany, New Zealand, Scandinavia, the United States of America and Switzerland ranked among the main markets at that time outside of Central and Eastern Europe. The steady-state shareholder structure with Pat's significant and decisive shareholding, together with the stabilization of economic indicators, enabled TONAK to take the path to a modern and prosperous future. As the main pillar of the revitalized strategy we can consider further building the position of the TONAK brand in terms of business and investment. Today, the focus is on productivity, new technologies, manufacturing patents and on increasing personnel qualifications. Stressful trade strategy is based on strong positioning of high quality felt and quality semi-finished products. It includes various phases of development for hat companies in the business relations between companies (B2B segment) and at the same time into the consumer environment of the end customers (B2C segment) with the goal of creating the brand TONAK. In the future, it should be the preferred supplier of quality and design of new headgear in modern in-time style. A key step towards a new emerging generation of consumers was the breakthrough through digital communication, new collaboration with leading designers and fashion icons, of course backed by the building of own network of flagship and flagship stores and e-commerce. TONAK today, we export almost all over the world - from Europe to North and South America, North and West Africa to the Near and Middle East. Wholesale customers include Australia, Bolivia, China, Ecuador, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Kazakhstan, Kuwait. Mongolia, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Senegal. United States and United Kingdom.

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