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Z Dějin Klobouků - TONAK 1799 - 170 - 1969, Jičín Č.Sovák


habigman
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I recently received this book on the 170th (1799 - 1969) Anniversary of TONAK (24 Years). Yes no mention of Hückel (146 Years) on the cover. Most of the book is a history of hats but there is a chapter on the history of the JHS factory. There is a good bit of propaganda but that is to be expected. Eventually I will make digital copy of the rest of the book.

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In the Footsteps of Tonak

Start of production of today's race Tonak tradition dates back to 1799, when it was a guild of Nový Jičín Hatters received a master of the young journeyman Jan Nepomuk Huckel from Fulnek, which soon gets in a guild and considerable influence, eventually becoming himself for many years Guildmaster and in 1811 arranges to be accepted into the guild of Nový Jičín also a master of his brother Augustin, who was already a master in Fulnek. Both brothers practiced their craft separately in Dolnobran-ber Street (now class. Red Army) and sell their handmade products to markets around Novy Jicin. Only in 1848, combines Augustine's son John, who took over the business from his uncle John of Nepomuk, after his father died two workshops in the bottom-Bránská street and establishes an extensive manufactory, which became the nucleus of the later factory and thus the millinery industry in Novy Jicin. To beautify his business, John sends his three sons apprenticeships, Augusta, Jana and Karla, to gain experience abroad and their knowledge about the progress of millinery production in other countries intends to use in its plant. At that time in novojických tex-vein factories that still have a much older tradition than the production of cloned Hats used machinery and steam forces for several decades. After returning sons of ci-zines introduces Jan Huckel their advice in their workshops several working machines and a weaker steam engine with an output of 3 horsepower. This revolution in do-savadním mode of production takes place in 1865 and Jan Huckel thus became the founder of mechanized factory production srstěných hats throughout the then-SIM Austria. Emerging manufacturing facilities in the course Dolnobranské street not far enough. Therefore Hůcklové bought a large plot outside the city, where it says "The pond" and 1867 are building a large factory, which equips the modern tech-nical equipment. Since January 1, 1868 officially takes over the company public company J. Huckle and sons and this name the company retains until its nationalization and the establishment of national enterprise Tonak. the newly established factory was now at its inception nearly 300 workers, reflecting the size and importance of the race. providing workers was not difficult to get right in, since at that time there was a crisis in the drapery production and many people lost their jobs. the new products factories, whose quality work had to excellence manual production, not only penetrated the Austrian market, but also abroad. Hůcklové could also readily take advantage of the German-French war in 1870-1871 and won their products to the foreign markets, they had supplied previously hats Germans and the French, they managed to keep them and even their wretched-Tista still many. there was recognition at world exhibitions in Vienna, Phi-ladelphii and Paris between the years 1873-1876 and thereafter Austrian Emperor honors John Huckle gold cross of Merit with a crown. All these honors were novojických recognizes the work of workers who are these achievements deserve its traditionally high quality level of its products. Hůcklové who had primacy in the industrial production of hats in the former Austria, still have a primacy: the establishment of their hair cutting room, which became independent from abroad, as hitherto imported rabbit and hare fur from Belgium, Germany and France.

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In addition, set up in the race a number of auxiliary operations, so they could produce almost everything, including the lining, ribbons and sweat bands. In 1880 the number rose to 700. The factory workers so as to exceed the number of employees-the largest textile factory in the city. For Hůcklův race worked out of a factory building for several hundred domestic workers, mostly women. Over the next decade, the increase in the number of workers in 1000. In 1893 Hůcklové won the title "court" and industrialists in 1900-znamenávají for further success when their velor hat gaining world-you-Constitution in Paris 'Grand Prix', the grand prize. Velor hats are a specialty films and soon they are known worldwide as the "Austrian Velour". The rapid rise Hůcklova race and his remarkable achievements at home and abroad have prompted Anthony Peschl, originally co-owners of the steam-mill, to build a competitor. When he was rejected drapery factory building at Novosady properties sold and bought a plot of land at Šenov distillery in the direct vicinity of Novy Jicin. Here was built in 1869-1870 small hat factory. having no expertise or experience, began production with great difficulties and had to seek the help of foreign experts . the first years were not successful. but later acquired enough experience to take the company management to hand himself, and supported by his capable and energetic wife Luisa, ensure permanent prosperity of the race. After Pesch-Love's death, the company management, which had at that time only over a hundred employees took widow Luisa, who modeled after the old John Huckle sent his son Anthony to gain experience abroad. Even after his return honed machinery, also set up your own cutting room and finally managed to break with its smooth and velor hats on foreign markets. Further development of millinery manufacture in Novy Jicin falls to the years 1905-6, when u Jičínky built by German-Jewish companions under the name of Böhm-SCHL-singer smaller hat factory, already in its first year of existence-Naval employees 80 workers and 25 workers . BiShmové brothers, who already had factories cloned thunderstorms in Vienna and Prague, then began to build in 1913 a new large factory on the road to cutlery iřďsledujícím completed in a year and equip it nejmoder-nějšími machine. Among the companions B6hmy á Schlesingry was a protracted dispute. In spring 1914 was released all the workers and the factory stopped. Two years later, the company liquidated and the factory became the property of the firm "Brothers f3.5hmové." The beginning of the twentieth century is no further growth and socket of-nalování of the three competing companies. In 1905, at the Peschl already employed 320 workers, factory expand additions and equip it with modern facilities, especially in 1912-13, when the number of workers increased to 530. also they are awarded the title "court". For Huckle not already started a fourth generation continues moder-nization factory. In 1909, it already costs 12 steam boilers and four steam engines. The plant has its own power and is able to handle up to 16,000 skins per day.

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Novy Jicin So before World War becomes a gigantic cloned boučnickým center, employing over 3,000 workers milliners. Has clear leadership in Europe. Work is in the millions of rabbit and hare skins, which are made of smooth and velor hats for women, men and children. In addition srstěných hats manufactured by Böhm and hats guilty, which are under-state are cheaper and specialty businesses. So, thanks to the company Böhm Novy Jicin retains even the oldest traditions, ancient, since antiquity, as you now know, knowing you-duction felt hats only out of guilt. Most of the production is exported to Europe and overseas, whether it was finished or semi-finished hats - men's and ladies-ber shapes. Production soared until 1927, when it reaches a nadir-tion point at which persists until the outbreak of the global crisis in 1929, but there Novojická millinery industry begins to feel at the end of 1930. In-vices to this boom is employed in the millinery industry Novy Jicin over half heel thousands of workers. Gradually, however, due to the global crisis, losing all-ny millinery factory supplies overseas, England and the Scandinavian countries. Firms suffered large losses currency, changes in the countries where they had their Pohl-dose. The situation has further deteriorated in 1931, which has not expected ob-Orders. These have become stupňovanému layoffs of workers. Since 1935, however, the production increases again, but in this period reaches every autumn and winter seasonal layoffs for workers. In the post-crisis period occurs biggest boom in 1937. But then comes the Munich and 10 October 1938, Novy Jicin annexed to Germany. The German Reich confiscated Bahmovu factory as zidovudine assets, and in 1941 it sold for 7,000,000 marks říškých enterprise Huckel that so dominated over 80 ° y0 Novojická making hats. During World War II, production began of course to reduce them-of the reduced export opportunities, because besides the Germans occupied territory remained the only sales regions Northern Europe, and Slovakia. Yet they were millinery factory net- employed, reoriented but production for the military: to felted gloves and socks, winter helmets, helmets for tropical Africa Korps, felt filters for trucks designed into the desert and in Hůcklově factory around since 1943, manufactured metal parts for weapons of war. In the former lower Bahmově race was then set up the production of garnet warheads. Czech workers were odčer-Pavano to work into the realm or short-term tasks such as digging trenches and bomb shelters, which led in January 1945 to halt production at the company Peschel.
After the end of World War II was the population of New Jičína Czech, who was at that time mostly German, faced with the task not only take over the management of the city but also factories into their own hands. Hůcklův Peschlův race and not to exempt in-fighting bozovacích significantly damaged, but the bottom Bahmově race retreating Germans set fire to machinery manufacturing and burned in the fire and some millinery department of production and stocks of finished hats, blanks, ribbons and skins. October 24, 1945, all three races decree of the President of the Republic knows-rodněny, but so far worked on each separately. March 7, 1946 were merged decree of the Minister of Industry, together with Valašskomeziříčsko Janyšková goods-Nou in one national pcdnik called "hat factory".

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About Janyšková factory, we should at least at this point to mention smaller in after-because it was the only purely Czech firm in complex major manufacturers of hats. The factory was founded in 1921 by Louis JANYŠKA, which began work-vat twenty people a little capital. Janyška, Meziříčská native, was actually pioneered the post-war industrial production and hats factory, founded in Krasno nad Bečvou, was the first Czech factory velor hair and cloned in a lightning storm. In 1922 was formed public company in the manufacture and sale of cloned s hats in Bečvou beautifully over the wording of the company Janyška et al. Janyškovými spo-managing partner Andrew were peasant Vavrečka, drover Zdeněk Vavrečka a locksmith Josef Johns. Overall, therefore, people who nerekrutovali from the millinery trade. However, this company did very well. However, it was necessary to give her a broader capital base. It happened in 1928, when the company was zakciono throughout, with the participation of the Czech-Moravian Bank. And from that year also dates boom factories. In 1931, already has 739 employees. Businesses prosper thanks to purposefully built its network of overseas representatives, and though there is an ever-increasing prosperity of the race, decides the Board of Directors may reorganize and put-Sima extension. Build new factory buildings, buying new types of machinery and great-working environment is upgraded. Produced here, Fur shapes, Capelines, master-ment, women and children and smooth velor hats. During the Second World War, there began to produce felted socks and insoles. After the war, given that it was a purely Czech company was not in a factory established by the state. Then there was the nationalization of factories and 7th on Mar.-1946 and in December of the same year was incorporated into the national enterprise Tonak. In 1961 the plant was liquidated. Plants, merged in the national enterprise "hat factory" idea-mounds 80/0 of all production srstěných hats and together employ nearly 5,000 people. It was not until early 1947 was for the company officially announced the name Tonak. After 1948, pursuant to the Act on further nationalization incorporated into TONAK a half dozen smaller firms from Bohemia and Moravia. the guilty were making it, for example Břínek and Vafek in Rajhradu u Brna, Czech factory Stump and hats in Hašek near Munich Hradiště, Keller et al., Upper Litvinov Chomutovská hat factory and Otava in Katowice near Strakonice. the factory Fur Karel Misík in Husinec, further treatment ladies hats in Brno, Prostejov, Krupka in the Erzgebirge and other 5 major treatment of women's hat-ku in Prague. There were incorporated into TONAK over time 24 companies. the ro-ce 1949, the establishment of a new national enterprise Otavan, hat manufacture based in Katowice and national enterprise Tonak had been delimited all races in the country.
The basic political-economic line of the state together with rigorous rationalization-tion and concentration of production led to the shutdown of some plants and all all production in semi Novojických factory (Hückel) concentrated in the largest basic plant Tonak 1 From 1 January 1952 Valašsko Meziříčsko factory (Janyška & Cie.)  known as Tonak 2 and Prague became Tonak 3.

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This, however, was organi-sational development terminated because in 1960 the corporate headquarters associated with re-ditelstvím race 1 and the end of that same year to stop production at Plant 2 in the Wallachian Meziříčí except fur cutting room, which worked until the end of April 1961. This adjustment became Novojická race Tonak 1 only manufacturer of felt hats throughout the state. Prague race, which made women's hat-ky, received designation 2. From 1 January 1961, the national enterprise Tonak included former race Pragoděv in Nasavrkách, producing civilian hats and caps for uniforms as in water-third the same year, was established in the former school race on the street Bezručova in Novy Jicin manufacture all kinds of hats as the fourth race Tonak Today ie on-tional Tonak company concentrates its four factories producing all the clones' s hats and caps in our country. This fact by itself, however, was never able to build np To-nak forehead hats manufacturers around the world. Just build on past tradition of the race, or upgrading equipment or production capacity of the factory, which in this field one of the largest in the world, would not mean much, if not employed, managed to build all components, namely manufacturing, technical and organizational to the same high level , harmonize them and create a solid foundation for sustained success. Perfect work organization in production lines, the ability to flexibly adapt production to the requirements of fashion, the strict product quality, professional training of forces seeking to create an exemplary work environment - all contributed to the success of the work, which confirms the number of received awards and titles, among them the award Red Flag government and several times obtained the title "Model export enterprise." the greatest honors national enterprise Tonak received February 20, 1958 granting the Order of Labour. the management, however, not satisfied with the results. They proclaimed their long-term plan to gradually implemented. At the time when you read these lines, workers Tonak already working on some new buildings that have been in this prospective plan implemented. the prospective plan to determine the objective of extensive recon-struction races, which should contribute to an increase in production and hence exports. as part of plans well of course, is remembered primarily to improve the working environment, elimination of sanitary defects, simplifying internal transport as all that is needed is related to the disposal of non-conforming and survivors of objects and their after-gradual replacement by new objects. Extensive renovations gradual accessed without disruption to production, that is, for piného operation, while closely monitoring the use of existing sites and buildings, if not the intended brake maxi-mum plant modernization. The prospective plan was drawn up in 1965 to ten years. It is one of the most important moments in the history of Tonak as evidenced by the initiative and progressive approach to social and technical requirements of today.

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The fact that it was for its implementation proceeded with Pina responsibility, providing the best proof paper Minister of Consumer Industry Boženy Macha-Cove-Dostalova, delivered on the occasion of his visit to Tonak in October 1967, a relatively short time after the commencement of reconstruction in the company. Her visit was preceded by a detailed survey of the functioning of business professionals-minister of Directors, on which the report is submitted to the Minister. Speech by Minister Boženy Ma-cháčové-Dostalova therefore relying on the specific findings of the state enterprise and therefore attach the closures and laudatory words of utmost importance. Especially that part of the speech in which the Minister emphasizes efforts to create optimal enterprise-tion of working and living conditions for employees. The paper from which the lack of space we bring some points, recognizes the work np Tonak from the most qualified. Minister Machačová-Dostalova among other things, said: "With today's tour of the race, I had the opportunity to familiarize themselves with great technical advances that occurred in the race since my last visit ... Moreover, I happy to say that this new technique, enrichment fleet with modern machinery , does not know the names of only improve the production plant, increasing productivity, but that simultaneously with the it occurred and an improved working environment, to eliminate many arduous or unhealthy work, therefore, that the new organization of work, mechanization and automation features, in short, all industries is not opposed to human and the C-aged, but works for man, for his own good. And it is her right and two-sided use in socialism. We do not only efficiently produce enough high-quality products and a wide range, which would satisfy both our consumers and foreign customers, but we want the people who have these beautiful products manufactured, working in an environment worthy of modern times, to work for a world-eligible, cleanroom that not only had the pleasure of hats that manufacture, but also from their own work. After all, working in a factory spends much of his life, the race to become their second home. I was pleasantly surprised that everything in recent years for workers made. I saw air conditioning, ensuring a constant temperature in the cutting room hair dryer with a continuous, commissioning, bathrooms, showers, changing rooms. Climate-tion and extraction and transfer of production of appliances available on the conical significantly improved environment in color, I was informed about the new social equ-tion in crude production and the finishing workshops was to improve the environment and by-siding handmade by pickling machines etc. So step by step Rehabilitation vanA dust, humidity, excessive temperatures and hard work ... When entering the factory buildings is seen that also regulates the external shape of the building, which should be do-ended three years along with planting lawns of vacant space . From the speech of Comrade director, who was able to visit in recent years several advanced capitalist countries shows that your business is one of the largest in the world. It should therefore be equipped with cutting-edge technology and world organized according to the most progressive ways. And that's not because we want your plant proudly showing foreign customers, but especially so that it worked well for our workers and other workers to plant operation were medieval galleys, as in the past we often hear that people are proud to his work and to his race.

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Caring for a person who pays management along with racing union and party organizations needed attention, but not end at creating the time-rehome working environment. I was familiar with residential construction for over-ees enterprise, which has taken place in recent years and which continues along with reconstruction of older flats and apartments in exchange for cooperation with MěNV.
So many working plant, even when they leave the factory gate, are not constantly in the care of the company, feel it in their homes and recreation, as you race built resort on Upper Bečvě reconciliation of interests within the enterprise and between the enterprise and the city and finally good cooperation with the branch Directorate, are sound foundations on which they are built today achievements of the company and where it is necessary to build even further. In conclusion, I would like to emphasize what resulted from the speech of Comrade Director. Vahalík that the basic position of MS. millinery production on world markets lies chiefly in the case of certain species at low cost, the fact that They can process very cheap and use indigenous raw materials and cheap milliners and fur in the production of quality hats. The importance of your process in terms of our entire national economy then is the high share of exports, especially in the capitalist countries and the high profitability of foreign exchange Also, your "Kloboučnická technical college" must become a breeding ground for milliners experts ...
I believe your company, your workers and other workers demonstrate viability-ness of your business that you will continue to develop new technology and new work organization that ensures the satisfaction of both our domestic needs of quantity, quality and range, and most importantly, it will be successful in the global fight markets and vindicate-eat honor and glory Czechoslovak milliner's products .... "we have deliberately used excerpts from a speech by Minister Boženy Macháčová far as recognition and appreciation of the efforts and achievements of the race from their mouths best confirms that everything that has been said before about the activities and intentions nation-ment enterprise Tonak left nor in the future remains only on paper. She also very positive about the other measures at the plant, which in recent years has helped to reduce turnover and increase the number of labor-ers whose residence is in the race site and in the surrounding area. it also includes care for the cultural life of workers: the establishment circling interest-ku, amateur theater, which got to the top amateur theater show, "Jiráskův Hronov" youth recitation file, when i was TONAK PE-clamshell choir "For Peace", which triumphantly placed on numerous shows LUT and now successfully continues its activities as a set of "Ondráš". The satisfaction mami-

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The satisfaction of mothers employed in the factory, the Tonak care of his considerable contribution to the establishment of nurseries and kindergartens. Besides the production of hats has Tonak another global primacy, apprenticeship training system for adolescents, which differs from other states, by the utmost care to general vocational training of apprentices and practice in all branches of production-and not just the narrow specialization in certain manufacturing section. Therefore Tonak sufficient number of well trained cadres. By 1975, wants to raise 630 milliners experts. Tonak the professional training of young cadres cared for from the very beginning. Already 1 September 1948 opened his own three-year apprentices pean-school and led it until it assumed by the State. After its founding was the only school of this kind in the country. The necessity of a thorough theoretical training has led to the fact that 1959 was established at the national event Tonak Technical College millinery technology for studying working with the help of higher-ma-industrial school in Koprivnice. In 1963 the company was founded technical school millinery technology using textbooks compiled by the technical department of enterprise-ers. National Company Tonak a Pine aware of the importance of educating new KAD-ers. Why pay extra care and youth criticized a goal to help her not only materially, but give her the best possible training and allow her and Piné activities throughout the culture. He leaned against the wearer a follower rich traditions, which entrusted the leadership of the middle generation and puppy love for the craft and the closer relations firm in which they are employed. For lack of space, unfortunately, can not be given a description of the production technology. It is indeed so complex that a mere text and without the possibility of direct and longer lasting recognition operation, you hardly understand all the complicated-tub path that rabbit skins must move forward before it becomes a hat. Production of a men's hat, of course, requires a much more operations than women's shapes, because in addition to the increasing hardening, ironing, sewing lining, sweat and decorative ribbon, etc. etc. Tonak National Company is the only manufacturer in Czechoslovakia felt hats-tronic products from the ground up . Basic material gains postřihem rabbit, interest-smell and divočáckých skins, whose hair after the treatment mix by complex formulas, depending on what kind of hat a hat mixture to serve. Currently handles 12-14 million rabbit skins. Of this amount, only one million of imports and the remaining amount comes from domestic collection. This in itself, when you realize that 80 ° / 0 of all production is exported, suggesting a high profitableness of production, which represents a considerable contribution to our foreign exchange holdings. Fashion character of production requires a wide assortment, especially in the upgrading process, where the dyeing, hardening and molding preparations. The largest assortment segmentation occurs in the finishing workshop where pro-wadi finish products and finally in zdobírně. Looking to interpretation

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Looking into výkladus men's, women's hats or shapes, stacked on a shelf at a milliner, hardly realize that we are looking at only a negligible part of the range, which is a national company manufactures Tonak. In women, it is because semi-finished products 289 kinds in men and 151, i.e., 440 different qualities and designs total. Also in poison-individual stages of production leads to further breakdown. For example, the hatters-ka coat is produced in 64 species, hat material from which the complex processes of birth hat, even in 97 species. Collection fedoras presents 80 models to 180 women and 120 shapes shapes on a quarterly basis. Caps are manufactured in 150 different shapes. Hats Tonak today worn by people in sixty countries around the world. The largest customers include the order in Europe, the USSR, England, Sweden, West Germany, Holland, Germany, France, Finland, Switzerland, Belgium, Denmark and Austria. From overseas countries are mainly USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Ghana, Nigeria, Iran and others. The share of exports in total production is piných 80 ° / 0th On increasing export production had a significant influence line extension, during which some new species reached on world markets leadership in the strong international competition. All these facts show the great importance of the millinery industry for our national economy, even if it is in relation to other industrial sectors modest in scope. Since 1955 takes continuous increase in production. After reconstruction works are to increase the production of fur double the 1963 production and Hoto-inflammatory hats to be even tripled. This will allow for capacity expansion, completing the modernization of the machinery and improve the working environment. Therefore, they are all prerequisites to get Tonak in the future maintain a stable position on foreign markets and the trust of customers, which gained worldwide quality and tasteful fashion and implementation of its products. The rich traditions and achievements, especially on foreign markets, the company that brought high positive foreign exchange balance, undertake national company Tonak his workers to continue to spread the good name of the work of our people-ce over the world. The company's desire to make its products have become a popular adornment as many as possible and thus to help Pinito social role assigned to them not only a glorious history, but also the needs of today's man. And the company is trying to make its products are worthy of this popularity.

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SOURCES:

 

O. Timidior, Der Hut und seine Geschichte (Wien-Leipzig, Hartlebensverlag).

 

Der Hut - (Ciba Rundschau NO. 31).

 

The Romance of the Straw Hat (Luton, 1933).

 

Merecke-Wykresowicz, Modniarstvo (Warsaw, 1959).

 

Grand - Carteret J., Les Élegances de la Toilette, Paris.

 

Das grosse Bilderlexikon der Mode (Artiaverlag, Praha).

 

Falke Jakob, Zur Kostůmgeschichte des Mittelalters:

Die weibliche Kopftracht (Wien, 1861).

Die Männliche Kopftracht (Wien, 1860).

 

Millinery leaves, Praha, Vol. 1917-1931.

 

Earl O., Picture Collection guide notable hats (Prague, 1943).

 

O. Earl, a counselor in the millinery trade (Šimáček, 1892).

 

C. Zíbrt, costume history in the Czech lands from prehistory to the Hussite wars (Šimáček, 1892).

 

Z. Winter, costume history in the Czech lands from the beginning. XV. cent. up to BELO-mountain battle (Šimáček, 1893).

 

Z. Winter, the history of industry and commerce XVI. Of age. History craftsmen XV. and XVI. age.

 

Dr. Karl Otto, Jan Brix, The History of millinery production and the national under-nich

Tonak in Novy Jicin (Tonak, Novy Jicin 1963).

 

Novojická in building a culture (Novy Jicin, 1957).

 

Reading about Novy Jicin (the anniversary of the 650 years of the city - MNV N. Jicin, 1963).

 

Miloslav Baláš, from Beskydy to Odra (1965).

 

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